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MEMOIRS 




OF THE 



AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



New Series, Volume III, Part I 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES 

OF THE GENUS CAT OC ALA 



By WM. BARNES, M.D. AND J. McDUNNOUGH, Ph.D. 




October, 1918 



New Series, Volume III, Part I 
ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS CATOCALA 



MEMOIRS 



OF 



The American Museum of Natural History 



New Series, Volume III 



PART I.— ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
CATOCALA BY WM. BEUTENMULLER, WITH ADDITIONAL PLATES AND TEXT 

By Wm. Barnes, M.D. and J. McDunnough, Ph.D. 

Plates I to XXII 

At the time of Mr. Wm. Beutenmiiller's withdrawal from his curatorship in The American Museum of Natural 
History he left in the hands of the authorities a partially completed monograph of the North American species of the 
genus Catocala. Knowing that we had ourselves been doing some slight work on this group, the Director forwarded the 
entire material to us with the request that we look it over and decide whether or not it could be put into fit shape for 
publication. 

The material as received by us consisted of ten plates of excellent water-color drawings of the various species and 
two plates containing colored figures of the larvae, all drawn by the accomplished hand of Mrs. Beutenmuller; besides 
this, there was an almost complete series of slides of the male clasping organs, of the legs, and of the palpi, together with 
rough outline sketches of the same. The manuscript itself proved to be very incomplete, in so far as any idea of a mono- 
graphic revision was concerned; it consisted of a fairly complete bibliography, a fresh description of each species drawn 
up by Mr. Beutenmuller with excerpts from various authors relating to the larval stages, and, finally, a few general remarks 
concerning habitat and the location of type specimens. 

Realizing the impossibility of our undertaking the immense amount of work involved in order to bring this manu- 
script up to a true monographic standard and yet being unwilling to deprive the entomological world of such excellent 
colored plates, it was suggested that they be published as ' Illustrations ' and that we prepare a more or less explanatory 
text to the same. The present paper is the outcome of this compromise. 

In commencing the work, our first concern was to endeavor to study the early stages of as many species as possible. 
As a result of breeding experiments carried on during several seasons, we have not only been able to verify and amplify 
some of the older larval descriptions but also to add materially to our knowledge of the whole group. Our notes on the 
early stages of a number of species have quite recently been published as a Museum Bulletin. 1 These notes are of necessity 
rather brief but, owing to the kindness of Dr. Stephen A. Forbes, State Entomologist for Illinois, who placed his artist, 
Mr. S. Fred Prince, at our disposal, we have been enabled to present five additional plates of larvae, enlarged larval 
segments, and heads, drawn and colored from living specimens under our supervision, and these, we trust, will serve to 
amplify our own rather meagre descriptions. 

1 1918. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, pp. 147-177. 

3 



4 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

A comparative study of the ova, larvae, male clasping organs, and tibise has convinced us that an excellent system of 
grouping may be evolved, based upon these four features and calculated to show the true affinities of the species far better 
than a system based on color alone. In the following pages we have attempted such an arrangement but it is of necessity 
more or less tentative, as our knowledge of the ova and larvse of many species is still very deficient. 

With regard to the male genitalia, we have found the claspers of great value for general grouping purposes but less so 
for specific separations. Apparently there is considerable local variation of these organs within each species and our 
studies have not been extended sufficiently to enable us to grasp any one feature which could be used in separating allied 
species. In this connection we would warn students from considering the figures of claspers herewith presented as any- 
thing more than rather rough sketches. We have carefully compared these sketches with the slides and eliminated 
many of the graver errors of the original drawings so that, for general purposes of grouping, they possess considerable 
value but, for the minute detail necessary in distinguishing closely related species, they cannot be recommended. 

With the exception of two species, nubilis Hiibner and elonympha Hubner, which are distinctly non-catocaline in all 
points, we have refrained from subdividing the genus. We believe, however, that sooner or later this must be done, as 
even our own more or less superficial studies have convinced us of the divergent points of origin of several of the groups. 
Such subdivision, however, may safely be left until the early stages of all the species are known; in this paper we have 
confined ourselves to indicating at the head of each group any generic term which might, if necessary, be available. We 
have further refrained from publishing a complete bibliography of each species; the more important revisions of our North 
American species will be found listed under the generic heading at the commencement of the paper; under each specific 
head we have given the original reference of the species as well as of each of its synonyms, varieties, forms, or aberrations, 
together with any important reference concerning the identity of the species or relating to its early stages. In our brief 
notes we have dealt with points of nomenclature, means of distinguishing closely related species, and geographical 
distribution. 

In conclusion, we would express the hope that students and collectors interested in this group may make a special 
effort to advance our knowledge of those species the early stages of which are unknown. We shall always be very glad to 
give any assistance in our power in the shape of breeding hints or methods of obtaining ova and also to receive material 
with which to carry on our own breeding experiments. 

Catocala Schrank 

Schrank, 1802, Fauna Boica, II, 2, p. 158. Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, pp. 1-20. Hulst, 

1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, pp. 2-13; 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, pp. 14-56. 

Hampson, 1913, Cat. Lep. Ehal. Brit. Mus., XII, pp. 1-209. 



SECTION I 

Mormonia Hubneb, 1823, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 276 (type, epione Drury). 

Catabapta Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 49 (type, antiuympha Hubner). 

All tibise spined ; tarsi with a fourth irregular row of spines. 

Hulst (be. tit, p. 49) first made use, for the purpose of classification, of the fact that a considerable number of species 
possess spined fore tibise; he created the genus Catabapta (type, antinympha Hubner, fixed by Hampson, 1913, be. tit., 
p. 11) for this group and is followed in this by Hampson (he. tit, pp. 1142). Unfortunately, both authors hive over- 
looked the fact that epione Hubner, the type of the genus Mormonia, also has spined fore tibise, though at times the spining 
is considerably reduced, and Mormonia Hubner will therefore take precedence over Catabapta Hulst as used by Hulst and 
Hampson. It may possibly be necessary, however, to still further subdivide the group and, in this latter case, Mormonia 
will be used for the epbne group, which consists of but two species as far as we know, and Catabapta for the Myrica- 
feeding section. 

A very constant feature of the whole section and one that has been overlooked by students up to the present but to 
which our attention was directed by Dr. W. T. M. Forbes while on a recent visit, is the fact that all the tarsi besides the 
normal three rows of ventral spines, have a distinct fourth row of similar spines, rather irregularly placed and considerably 
more dorsal. Outside of the section this feature is only found in two species, viz., illecta Walker and aholibah Strecker. 



BARNES ANI> McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA ^ 

This section contains all the walnut-feeders, the Myrica-feeders, and a single, rather aberrant, Gleditschia-i 'eeder. 
Our further grouping is based on a study of the egg, the larva, and the male genitalia, which apparently present very 
excellent and constant classificatory features. As, unfortunately, the early stages of several species are entirely unknown 
and those of others quite incompletely so, our system must be considered as more or less tentative and will, doubtless, be 
considerably modified when the early stages have been adequately studied. Our studies, however, have convinced us 
that a separation on the color of the secondaries alone is entirely faulty — one based on the larval food-plants, even, would 
be considerably more accurate — and that the black-winged forms are of comparatively recent origin and have developed 
from various orange and yellow forms by a spreading of the black areas until all traces of color on the upper side of the 
secondaries have been eliminated. 

Group I 

Egg rather more than hemispherical, ribbed. Larva without lateral filaments, but with a slight dorsal transverse 
wart on the fifth abdominal segment.' Male claspers strongly asymmetrical, the left clasper and the left harpe being quite 
abnormal in shape and differing markedly from those of any other member of the section. 

This group contains but a single species, the Gleditschia-i 'eeder, innubens Guenee. 

Catocala innubens Guenee 

Plate VII, figs. 9-11; PI. X, fig. 35 (larval head); PL XI, fig. 10 (larva); PI. XVIII, figs. 1 and 2 (claspers). 

Catocala innubens Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Ins. Sp. Gen., VII, p. 98. French, 1888, Can. Ent., XX, p. 170 (larva). Barnes and 

McDtjnnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 147. 
Catocala scintillans Grote and Robinson, 1866, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., VI, p. 28, PI. in, fig. 6. 
Catocala innubens var. flavidalis Grote, 1874, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, V, p. 95. 
Catocala innubens var. hinda French, 1881, Papilio, I, p. 111. 

This species is too well known to need further comment on our part. The form described as hinda by French is merely 
the normal female, as figured on plate VII, figure 10, and the name should be dropped. Scintillans Grote and Robinson 
(figure 11) is a well-marked form which is quite worthy of a name. Flavidalis Grote is presumably a rare color-sport with 
yellow instead of orange secondaries; it is a mere aberration of which we have never seen specimens. Beutenmiiller 
(1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 508) states, on the authority of Mr. Chas. Dury, that it is artificially pro- 
duced by heat. 

The species occurs throughout practically the entire eastern half of the United States and is very common in the 
Mississippi and Ohio valleys ; northward, it extends into Ontario and Wisconsin but we have no records of its occurrence 
in the Canadian Northwest. 

Group II 

Egg hemispherical, ribbed. Larva smooth, without either dorsal warts or lateral filaments. Male claspers strongly 
asymmetrical. 

The single species, piatrix Grote, has generally been associated with neogama and subnata, but it differs so markedly 
in egg, larva, and genitalia from other members of the section that we have no alternative to placing it in a group by itself. 
The non-specialized egg and larva would point to a rather primitive form. 

Catocala piatrix Grote 

Plate VI, figs. 2 and 3; PI. X, fig. 27 (larval head); PL XI, fig. 6; PI. XIII, fig. 5 (larva); PI. XV, fig. 8 
(larval head); PL XVIII, figs. 3 and 4 (claspers); PL XXI, figs. 23-25 (tibiae). 

Catocala piatrix Grote, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Ill, pp. 88 and 532, PL in, fig. 3. Betjtenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., XVI, p. 389, PL lii, fig. 13 (larva). Barnes and McDtjnnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 148. 
Catocala dionyza Hy. Edwards, 1885, Papilio, IV, Jan., p. 124. 

This species is subject to very little variation in the imago; the females are somewhat more contrastingly marked 



6 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

than the males but the difference is slight. In Arizona we meet with a much paler geographical race which has been named 
dionyza by Hy. Edwards and is well represented on plate VI, figure 3. 

Apparently the larvse are rather variable in coloration, especially on the head segments. The figure given of the 
head on plate X, figure 27 is one drawn by Mrs. Beutenmiiller from the larva described in Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
XVI, p. 389, and figured in this work on plate XI, figure 6; on plate XV, figure 8 we depict the head as we have commonly 
found it. Rowley (1909, Ent. News, XX, p. 133) records several varieties of larvse found in the vicinity of Louisiana, 
Missouri, but further breeding will be necessary to decide whether such considerable variability exists or whether possibly 
two species are involved. Personally, among numerous specimens bred from the egg, we have found only slight color 
variations present and figure 5 of plate XIII accurately represents the larva as we know it; we are rather skeptical as to 
the specific unity of the two larvse figured on plate XI, figure 6 and plate XIII, figure 5. 

The species is rather more extended in its range than innubens, occurring in practically all the states east of the Mis- 
sissippi River and being very common in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys; it extends westward through Texas into Arizona 
and southward into Mexico. Beutenmiiller, in his manuscript, records it from "Canada west to British Columbia" 
but this needs verification; neither Winn, in his List of Quebec Lepidoptera, nor Wolley Dod, in his Alberta List, men- 
tion the species, although it is quite frequently met with in southern Ontario. 

Group III 

(Mormonia Hubner) 

Egg rather more than hemispherical. Larvse cylindrical, without either dorsal warts or lateral filaments; hickory- 
feeders. Male claspers somewhat asymmetrical, the left valve being more highly chitinized in the dorsal area than the 
right one, which is obliquely angled one-third from apex forming a slight blunt hook. 

We have placed the two species epione and consors in this group on account of the great similarity in the male genitalia ; 
the maculation of the primaries would also point to a close association of the two species. Both species have the spining 
of the fore tibiae much reduced, and single specimens possibly occur in which spines are entirely lacking, but normally 
these are quite readily distinguishable. 

Catocala consors (Abbot and Smith) 

Plate VII, fig. 7; PL X, fig. 31 (larval head); PL XII, fig. 16 (larva); PL XVIII, figs. 7 and 8 (claspers). 

Phalcena consors Abbot and Smith, 1797, Nat. Hist. Lep. Georgia, II, p. 177, PL lxxxix. 

Catocala consors Betjtenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 391, PL in, fig. 18 (larva). 

The characteristic purplish hue of the primaries with prominent single black cross-lines, combined with the very 
irregular nature of the postmedian orange band of secondaries, will readily distinguish this species from the other yellow 
winged forms. 

The larva figured on plate XII, figure 16 is the original of Beutenmiiller's description in Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
XVI, p. 391. We received a single larva from Vinton, Iowa, found on a young hickory bush; it agreed excellently with 
this description and figure but, unfortunately, it died before pupation. We have no doubt that hickory is the true food- 
plant and that Abbot's record of False Indigo (Baptisia) and Hulst's (Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 40) of Myrtle 
(Myrica) are erroneous. 

The species is rather rare but is quite wide-spread throughout the Southern States and the Mississippi and Ohio 
valleys; it extends as far north as the states of New York and New Jersey on the East Coast and Iowa in the Middle 
West. Snow (1875, Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci., IV, p. 51) records it from the vicinity of Lawrence, Kansas. 

Catocala epione (Drury) 
Plate I, fig. 16; PL XIII, fig. 3 (larva); PL XV, fig. 7 (larval head); PL XVI, fig. 1 (segment); PL XVIII, figs. 5 and 6 (claspers). 

Phalcena (Noctua) epione Drury, 1770, 111. Exot. Ent., I, 47, PL xxm, fig. 2; and 1773, App. II. 

Catocala epione Dodge, 1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, p. 225 (larva). Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull Amer Mus Nat Hist 
XXXVIII, p. 149, • • • •? 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA < 

Fresh specimens are considerably blacker on the primaries than the specimen figured on plate I, figure 16. The 
characteristic black cross-lines, in course much as we find in consors, readily separate it from the other black-winged species. 
It appears early in the season and extends over practically the same territory as innubens. 

Wormsbacher (1912, Zeitsch. fur wiss. Ins. Biol, VIII, p. 257) records oak as the food-plant of the larva but we imagine 
this is erroneous; larvae bred by us from the egg refused all food-plants but hickory. 

Group IV 
(Catabapta Hulst) 

Egg unknown. Larva without dorsal warts or lateral filaments. Male claspers either symmetrical or only slightly 
asymmetrical; apex of claspers rather pointed and projecting well beyond the less highly chitinized ventral area. 

This group comprises the Myrica-f eeders, as far as the early stages are known. We have included coelebs in the group 
on account of its similarity to badia in general appearance, a resemblance which is further borne out by the male genitalia. 
In muliercula the male genitalia are practically symmetrical, while the other three species show a slight asymmetry, the 
dorsal area of the left clasper being more strongly chitinized than the corresponding area of the right clasper; the harpes 
are very broad at the base. Detailed information concerning the early stages of all the species of this group is greatly 
to be desired. 

Catocala muliercula Guenee 

Plate VII, fig. 24; PL XII, fig. 13 (larva); PI. XVIII, figs. 9-10 (claspers). 

Catocala muliercula Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 97; PI. n, fig. 15. Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 390. 
Catabapta muliercula var. peramans Hulst, 1881, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 50. 

The deep brown color of the primaries is. characteristic; the form described by Hulst as peramans is an aberration 
with the yellow areas of secondaries greatly reduced so that the wings are almost black. 

The larva is quite unknown to us and we have been unable to verify the correctness of the figure given on plate XII, 
figure 13. In his manuscript Beutenmuller has noted that the larvse are variable and that from several hundred which he 
collected and supposed to be muliercula both this species and badia were bred; he was unable to find satisfactory characters 
to separate the two species. 

The species is more or less confined to the Atlantic Coast States where the food-plant abounds. French records 
it from Illinois (1881, Synop. Catocalse 111., p. 8) but we personally do not know of its occurrence in this state. We have 
a few specimens before us labelled Houston, Texas, but cannot vouch for the correctness of the label. Further information 
regarding distribution and early stages is much to be desired. 

Catocala antinympha (Hubner) 

Plate VII, fig. 15; PI. XII, fig/ 14 (larva); PI. XVIII, figs. 11 and 12 (claspers). 

Phalcena (Noctua) paranympha Drury (nee Linnaeus), 1770, 111. Exot. Ent., I, p. 49, PL xxm, fig. 6; and 1773, App., II. 

Ephesia antinympha Hubner, 1825, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 278. 

Catocala affinis Westwood, 1837, Drury, Exot. Ent., New Ed., I, p. 44, PI. xxm, fig. 6. 

Catocala melanympha Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 98. 

Catocala antinympha Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 392, PL lii, fig. 19 (larva). 

The secondaries in the figure (PL VII, fig. 15) are paler than is usually found. The small size and blackish velvety 
color of the primaries render the species easily recognizable. 

The larva is unknown to us except from prepared material which corresponds as far as we can tell with the figure 
given (PI. XII, fig. 14). 

The species is distinctly more northern in its range than muliercula occurring from Ontario and Quebec south through 
the New England States to Maryland. It has been recorded from Pennsylvania (Engel, 1908, Ann. Cam. Mus., V, 
p. 59) and Beutenmuller's manuscript mentions Wisconsin, but we have no definite data regarding its presence in this 
latter state. 



8 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

Catocala ccelebs Grote 
Plate VII, fig. 8; PI. XVIII, figs. 13 and 14 (claspers). 
Catocala coelebs, Grote, 1874, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, V, p. 96. 

This species may be distinguished from badia, with which it has been at times confused, by the pale gray color of the 
median area of the primaries and the brown basal and postmedian shading. 

Nothing is known of the early stages or food-plant of the larva. 

It is a northern species and generally rather rare, although in certain districts of Maine it is apparently quite com- 
mon. It occurs in Ontario and Nova Scotia and probably will be found in Quebec, although not mentioned by Winn in 
his List of Quebec Lepidoptera; it extends southward through New Hampshire to the Adirondack Mountains of New 
York. 

Catocala badia Grote and Robinson 

Plate VII, fig. 16; PI. X, fig. 32 (larval head); PI. XII, figs. 2-6 (larva); PI. XVIII, figs. 15 and 16 (claspers). 

Catocala badia Grote and Robinson, 1866, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., VI, p. 22, PI. iv, fig. 1. Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 391, PI. lii, fig. 17. 
Catocala badia var. phoebe Hy. Edwards, 1885, Papilio, IV, Jan., p. 125. 

This species is rather distinctive on account of the general indefiniteness of the maculation of the primaries, which 
are more or less suffused basad of the t. p. line with purplish brown. The figure (PI. VII, fig. 16) shows the maculation 
rather more distinct than usual and apparently represents a transition to the form phoebe Hy. Edwards, which was de- 
scribed from New Hampshire specimens and in which the t. p. line (normally straight) is sharply angled outwardly opposite 
the cell. Whether phoebe will prove to be a good geographical race or merely an aberration must remain undecided until 
more material is forthcoming. 

The larva is unknown to us. Beutenmuller figures several varieties (PI. XII, figs. 2-6) but, as already stated, has 
confused the larvae of this species with those of muliercula and careful breeding will be necessary to clear up the matter. 

The species is common in the southern New England States and the northern Atlantic States. 

Group V 

Egg flat, disk-shaped, with slightly elevated rim. Larva without dorsal elevations or lateral filaments. Male 
claspers somewhat asymmetrical, the left clasper being more heavily chitinized dorsally and blunter at the apex than the 
right one; both apices project well beyond the thinly chitinized ventral area of the clasper. 

This group includes a number of species in which the male genitalia are so similar as to be practically useless as a 
means of specific separation, especially as considerable variation is shown in individuals of the same species. The flat egg, 
of a highly specialized nature, is very characteristic. As a rule, there are five larval molts but there may occur as many 
as seven, as is the case with habilis. The larvse, as far as is known, are all hickory- or walnut-feeders. The species serena, 
denussa, agrippina, and sappho are only tentatively placed here, as nothing is known of their early stages. There is a 
marked tendency in the group for the females of the species to develop a basal dash on the primaries, notably the case 
in habilis and angusi where they are seldom without it. 



Catocala habilis Grote 
Plate VII, fig. 5; PL X, fig. 24 (larval head); PI. XII, fig. 1 (larva); PL XVIII, figs. 17 and 18 (claspers). 

Catocala habilis Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 11. Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 389, PL 
lii, fig. 14 (larva, as serena). Rowley, 1909, Ent. News, XX, p. 134 (larva). Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 150. 

Catocala habilis var. basalis Grote, 1876, Can. Ent., VIII, p. 230. 

The ashen-gray primaries with clean cut maculation, together with the small size, separate the species from the 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 9 

other orange-banded species. The variety basalis Grote is merely the normal female form with a black dash at the base 
of the wing; occasional female specimens, however, occur without this dash so that the name may be retained if desired. 

The full-grown larva has been described several times, Beutenmuller having erroneously recorded it in his paper on 
Catocala larvse as serena. We would call particular attention to the abnormal number of larval stages (seven) as recorded 
by us in our recent larval descriptions. 

The species ranges from Ontario and Quebec southward to Virginia and westward to the Mississippi Valley and 
Kansas. There is no reason why it should not occur in the Gulf States but we have no records from this region. 

Catocala denussa Ehrman 

Plate VIII, fig. 25. 

Catocala denussa Ehrman, 1893, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, I, p. 152. Beutenmuller, 1913, Insec. Ins. Menst., I, p. 97. 

The only specimen known is the type male in the Ehrman Collection, captured in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. 
Beutenmuller, who has examined the type, states that all the tibiae are spined and he is inclined to regard it as a good 
species rather than as an aberration of habilis; we leave it so for the present. 

Catocala serena Edwards 
Plate VII, fig. 6; PL XVIII, figs. 19 and 20 (claspers). 
Catocala serena Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 510. 

This species is only tentatively placed here as nothing is known of its early stages. The t. p. line is much less excurved 
beyond the cell than in habilis and the color of the primaries is duskier. 

It occurs sparingly throughout the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, extending eastward into New York and Massachu- 
setts and northward into southern Ontario. 

Catocala robinsoni Grote 

Plate II, figs. 9 and 10; PI. XVIII, figs. 21 and 22 (claspers). 

Catocala robinsonii Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 20. Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., XXXVIII, p. 151. 
Catocala robinsoni var. curvata French, 1881, Papilio, I, p. 218. 
Catocala robinsonii var. missouriensis Schwarz, 1915, Ent. News, XXVI, p. 289, PI. x, fig. 1. 

Typical robinsoni has the primaries paler and more evenly gray than any other of the species with black secondaries 
and white fringes. The form curvata French (PI. II, fig. 10) was described from a single female with a black basal dash and 
a curved blackish mark from the center of the costa across the reniform to the apex of the wing; the basal dash is probably 
merely a female characteristic which is only occasionally found in this species; we possess a single female of the type form 
with this dash and others without this dash but with the apical dark curved mark of the curvata form; we have seen no 
curvata males with the basal dash. The form missouriensis Schwarz is unknown to us but from the figure would seem to 
be an extreme form of curvata with the black dash much broadened and extending obliquely from base to just below apex 
of wing; it is worthy of note that three of the four type specimens are said to be males. Both curvata and missouriensis 
were described from material from the Middle West (Illinois and Missouri) and we have seen no specimens of these forms 
in eastern material, which in general is more evenly gray and less strongly marked than western specimens. The egg and 
larva are very similar to those of habilis. A detailed account of the earlier larval stages is still needed, our own notes 
dealing merely with the mature larva and having been drawn up from an inflated specimen. 

The species is fairly common in late August and September throughout southern Ontario and the Eastern States, 
extending (as is usual with all the hickory-feeders) through the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. The most southerly record 
we know of is that of Alabama for one of the types of missouriensis but we should not be surprised to find that the species 
occurs in Texas and other Gulf States. 



10 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

Catocala Judith Strecker 
Plate I, fig. 15; PI. X, fig. 28 (larval head); PI. XI, fig. 15 (larva); PI. XVIII, figs. 23 and 24 (claspers). 

Catocala Judith Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., Nov., p. 95, PL xi, fig. 5. Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, 

p. 390, PI. lii, fig. 15 (larva). 
Catocala levettei Grote, 1874, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, V, Dec, p. 95. 

This is a small species in which the primaries are a pale even gray and the fringes of the secondaries are smoky-brown. 
The sexes are practically alike and we have never seen any females with a black basal dash. 

The larva is unknown to us. Figure 15 on plate XI is presumably from the original of Beutenmuller's description 
in Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 390; Dodge (1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, p. 224) has also furnished a description 
of the mature larva. A detailed account of the egg and the early larval stages is a desideratum. 

The species is wide-spread throughout the Eastern States and the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, extend- 
ing northward into Ontario and Quebec, where it is comparatively rare. 

Catocala flebilis Grote 

Plate II, fig. 12; PL XII, fig. 19 (larva); PI. XVIII, figs. 33 and 34 (claspers). 

Catocala flebilis Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 4. Rowley and Berry, 1912, Ent. News, XXIII, p. 209 (larva). 
Catocala dejecta form Carolina Holland, 1903, Moth Book, p. 261, PL xxxn, fig. 5. Beutenmuller, 1905, Can. Ent., XXXVII, p. 292. 

This species closely resembles a small retecta but generally has the reniform much more distinctly centered with brown; 
a prominent black shade from the base of wing to the outer margin just below the apex is always present, being evenly 
oblique and not irregularly broken as in angusi var. lucetta; on the under side of the primaries the white areas, which are 
quite prominent in retecta, are greatly obscured by blackish scaling. Holland, erroneously figuring lucetta (PL xxxi, 
fig. 11) as flebilis, has redescribed the true species as Carolina, his figured specimen (PI. xxxn, fig. 5) being a rather pale 
and poorly marked male. 

The early stages are unknown to us but have been accurately described by Rowley and Berry. According to this 
description, the absence of the lateral filaments distinguishes the larva from that of retecta and proves the validity of the 
species. 

Flebilis is nowhere very common but is wide-spread. It has practically the same range of territory as Judith except 
that it does not extend so far northward, there being no records of its occurrence in Ontario and Quebec so far as we know. 

Catocala angusi Grote 
Plate II, figs. 13-16; PI. XVIII, figs. 25 and 26 (claspers). 

Catocala angusi Grote, 1876, Can. Ent., VIII, p. 229; 1877, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci., Ill, p. 188, PI. v, fig. 1. Rowley, 1909, Ent. 

News, XX, p. 135 (larva). 
Catocala residua var. lucetta French, 1881, Synop. Catocalse Illinois, p. 4. 
Catocala flebilis Holland (nee Grote), 1903, Moth Book, p. 262, PL xxxi, fig. 11. 
Catocala angusi var. edna Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 150. 

The typical form of this species is that figured by Grote in Buffalo Bull., Ill, PL v, figs. 1 and 2 and in this work 
on plate II, figures 13 and 14; the female (Fig. 14) which has a black basal dash has been redescribed by Beutenmuller 
under the name edna. The form lucetta (Fig. 15) occurs in both sexes and is characterized by heavy black streaks at base 
of wing and beyond the cell; this form, as already noted, has been erroneously determined by Holland as flebilis Grote. 
The name lucetta is usually attributed to Hy. Edwards but should stand, according to the rules of nomenclature, as lucetta 
French, since French first diagnosed the form in his Synopsis of the Catocalse of Illinois, the fact that it is attributed to 
"Hy. Edwards, MSS." not altering the case at all (vide Banks and Caudell, Entom. Code, p. 8, Rule 27). The 
specimen figured on plate II, figure 16, is recorded by Beutenmuller in his explanation of plates as an aberration of 
angusi; as we have not seen the original specimen which served for the figure nor any specimens at all similar, we refrain 
from comment. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 



11 



Apart from Rowley's short note (Ent. News, XX, p. 135) stating that the mature larva is very similar to that 
of habilis, nothing is known of the life-history of the species. 

The species occurs throughout the same territory as flebilis but is rather more commonly met with. 



Catocala obscura Strecker 

Plate II, fig. 17; PL XVIII, figs. 27 and 28. 

Catocala obscura Strecker, 1873, Lep. Rhop. Het., May, p. 19, PI. in, fig. 4. Kellicott, 1886, Ent. Amer., II, p. 45 (larva). Dodge, 

1904, Can. Ent., XXXVI, p. 115 (larva). Rowley, 1909, Ent. News, XX, p. 134 (larva). 
Catocala simulatilis Grote, 1873, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, V, Sept., p. 94. Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 106. 

This species is, as the name implies, very obscure in the maculation of the primaries; it is generally distinguished 
from residua by the white fringes of the secondaries, which in the latter species are dusky. There is, however, some doubt 
in our minds as to whether this feature is of specific value, as the series before us tends to show intergrades. Careful 
breeding from authoritatively identified specimens will be necessary to settle the point. Holland's figure of obscura 
(PI. xxxi, fig. 14) should be referred to residua. Three descriptions (as cited above) exist of the mature larva and, 
while they all agree in stating that neither filaments nor dorsal hump are present, they vary considerably in other respects. 
Messrs. Dodge, in their article, give points of distinction between the larvse of obscura and residua, claiming that the former 
has a black acuminate dash extending from the mouth two-thirds of the way to the top of the head, while the latter has 
merely a small ill-defined blotch at the corners of the mouth; the pattern on the dorsum is also noted as different. These 
differences, if constant, would constitute specific distinctness. 

We have made several slides of the genitalia of this species and of residua, besides having before us those slides which 
served as the originals of Beutenmuller's figures, but have been unable to decide by these means anything definite regard- 
ing the status of the two so-called species. The male claspers of a specimen of obscura from Massachusetts agreed exactly 
with Beutenmuller's figure, while those of a specimen from Quincy, Illinois, which we should not hesitate a moment in 
calling obscura, approached very closely to his figure of residua. On the other hand, eastern specimens of residua from 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania showed more resemblance in the genitalia to the figure of obscura than to that of residua. 
The formation of the apical portion of the claspers in this group is apparently not entirely constant. As we have remarked 
above, careful breeding from known females will be necessary to decide the point as to whether the names represent distinct 
species; for the present we treat them as such. 

The species extends over the same general region as does the preceding species; it has been recorded from as far 
north as Ottawa, Ontario (Gibson, 1911, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1910, p. 111). 



Catocala residua Grote 

Plate II, fig. 18; PI. XIII, fig. 2 (larva); PL XV, fig. 2 (larval head); PI. XV, fig. 29 and PL XVII, fig. 3 (segments); 

PL XVIII, figs. 29 and 30 (claspers). 

Catocala residua Grote, 1874, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 242. Dodge, 1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, p. 225 (larva, as obscura). 
Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 152. 

Fresh specimens show more of a blackish tinge on the primaries than does figure 18 of plate II; Holland's figure under 
obscura (PI. xxxi, fig. 14) gives a good idea of the species. As already noted under the preceding species, the fringes of 
the secondaries are dusky with a small whitish area near apex; specimens before us from Middle Western States (Illinois 
and Arkansas) show considerable whitish suffusion throughout the whole fringes, although the primaries with their dis- 
tinct and contrasted maculation (notably the white s. t. line) point to an association with residua rather than obscura. 
As is the case with the preceding species, further breeding experiments are much to be desired to establish the range of 
variation. 

The species occurs throughout the same territory as does obscura. 



12 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

Catocala sappho Strecker 

Plate I, fig. 14; PL XVIII, figs. 31 and 32 (claspers). 

Catocala sappho Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 95, PL xi, fig. 4. 

This is one of the rarest of the black-winged Catocala and is at once recognized by the large amount of whitish suffusion 
on the primaries. Nothing is known of the life-history. The species was described from a single specimen from Texas 
and has been recorded from Virginia, South Carolina, Florida, and various states of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. It 
is probably as wide-spread as the majority of the hickory-feeders, although seldom captured. 

Catocala agrippina Strecker 
Plate I, figs. 1-6; PL XVIII, figs. 35 and 36 (claspers). 

Catocala agrippina Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 95, PL xi, figs. 1-3. 

Catocala subviridis Harvey, 1877, Can. Ent., IX, p. 193. 

Catocala barnesi French, 1900, Can. Ent., XXXII, p. 190. Beutenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 508. 

Figure 1 on plate I represents the males which are rather constant in color; the females are much more contrastingly 
marked and more variable, several of the more marked forms being represented by figures 2, 3, and 5; figure 4 represents 
a rare aberration, specimens of which, according to Beutenmiiller's manuscript, are contained in the National Museum 
at Washington and in the Strecker Collection in the Field Museum at Chicago. The form subviridis Harvey, of which 
barnesi French is a synonym, is characterized by the greenish suffusion over the primaries; a female from our own collec- 
tion is depicted in figure 6. Holland's figure under this name (PL xxxi, fig. 4) is incorrect and should be referred to agrip- 
pina; the maculation points to it being a female but the body looks like that of a male. 

Nothing is known of the early stages or food-plant. The species is distinctly a southern one, being fairly common in 
Texas and the Gulf States and extending up the Mississippi Valley to the neighborhood of St. Louis, Missouri. It has also 
been recorded as rare from New Jersey (Smith, 1910, Cat. Ins. N. J., p. 478), Pittsburg, Pennsylvania (Ehrman, 1895, 
Ent. News, V, p. 212), and Ohio (Dury, 1877, Can. Ent., IX, p. 178). 

Group VI 

Egg (as far as known) flat, disk-shaped, with slight raised rim. Larva with lateral filaments, usually without a dorsal 
prominence on the fifth abdominal segment. Male claspers more or less asymmetrical. 

When more is known of the early stages it may become necessary to subdivide the group; concerning the early stages 
of dejecta, nebulosa, subnata, and euphemia, nothing is known, and these species are only tentatively included here; the 
early stages of several other species are more or less incomplete, so that a definite arrangement is impossible. The known 
larvae are all hickory- or walnut-feeders. 

Concerning the species with black hind wings, we doubt if they have all sprung from the same parent form; retecta 
seems, both in the larva and in the genitalia, to be closely associated with residua and flebilis, but may be separated by 
the presence of the lateral filaments in the larva; the other species show considerably more asymmetry in the genitalia 
than the above species, the apex of the left clasper being rather broad and prominently extended beyond the thinly chiti- 
nized area, while in the right clasper it is quite sharply pointed and scarcely projecting. 

In the yellow-winged species the same discrepancies occur; palceogama larva has a distinct wart-like ridge on the 
dorsal portion of the fifth abdominal segment, but the species approaches close to lachrymosa in the form of the male geni- 
talia; neogama has a larva approaching more the normal form but rather rougher in appearance; concerning the larvse 
of the other species nothing is known. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 13 

Catocala retecta Grote 

Plate II, figs. 11, 19, and 20; PL XII, fig. 20; PI. XIII, fig. 1 (larva); PL XV, fig. 3 (larval head); PL XV, fig. 31, and 

PL XVII, fig. 6 (segments); PL XVIII, figs. 37 and 38 (claspers). 

Catocala retecta Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 4. French, 1894, Can. Ent., XXVI, p. 97 (larva). Barnes and McDtjn- 

nough, 1918, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 153. 
Catabapta luctuosa Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 53. 

This common species is very similar in general type of maculation to flebilis and vidua, being in size intermediate 
between the two; the reniform is generally more filled with brown than in vidua and the rather prominent black shade 
through the submedian median fold of this latter species is lacking, a feature that is not very well brought out in the illus- 
tration (PL II, fig. 11) but is better seen in Holland's figures (PL xxi, figs. 5 and 8). The form luctuosa (Figs. 19 and 20) 
is characterized by the purplish-brown ground-color of the primaries. The species is quite constant in maculation and 
shows no sexual differences. The larva, which is quite distinct from that of vidua, is closely approached by that of residua, 
differing in the presence of lateral filaments. 

The species extends throughout practically the whole of the eastern half of the United States, ranging northward into 
Ontario and Quebec. 

Catocala dejecta Strecker 
Plate II, fig. 8; PL XVIII, figs. 39 and 40 (claspers). 
Catocala dejecta Strecker, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, II, p. 97. 

This species is not common. It is allied to retecta and vidua but has more pointed wings and a rather prominent 
white costal patch before the reniform, the remainder of the wing in the male being unicolorous gray; the female (Fig. 8) 
is rather more contrasted in maculation, with a short, black, basal dash. The early stages are unknown. The species 
appears to have the usual range of the hickory-feeders, being reported from various states of the Ohio and Mississippi 
valleys and from the Atlantic Coast States from New Hampshire to Virginia. 

Catocala insolabilis Guenee 

Plate I, figs. 7 and 8; PL X, fig. 23 (larval head); PL XII, fig. 11 (larva); PL XIX, figs. 1 and 2 (claspers). 

Catocala insolabilis Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 94. Beutenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 
p. 509 (larva). 

This species is easily recognized by the dark shading along inner margin of primaries and by the practical lack of the 
white median band on the under side of both wings. 

The only knowledge of the early stages that we have is Beutenmuller' s note on the mature larva, figure 11 of plate 
XII presumably being based on the original of this description. 

The species is wide-spread over the same general area common to all the hickory-feeders. 

Catocala vidua (Abbot and Smith) 

Plate I, fig. 17; PL XIII, fig. 6 (larva); PL XV, fig. 1 (larval head); PL XV, fig. 32, and PL XVII, 
fig. 12 (segments); PL XIX, figs. 3 and 4 (claspers). 

Phalama vidua Abbot and Smith, 1797, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ga., II, p. 181, PL xci. 

Catocala vidua Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 155. 

Catocala desperata Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 95. French, 1888, Can. Ent., XX, p. 28 (larva). 

This species is one of the largest of the black-winged forms; its points of distinction from allied species have already 
been pointed out. The figure of the larva given by Abbot on his plate xci is certainly not that of vidua but is probably 
that of ilia, the fact that it is stated to be an oak-feeder being a further proof in favor of this association. 

Vidua, as already noted by us, is one of the few species in which the larva has seven stages, probably due to the small 
size of the egg and the large size of the moth. 

The species is rather common and wide-spread throughout the eastern half of the United States and extends into 
southern Ontario. 



]4 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

Catocala maBstosa (Hulst) 

Plate I, fig. 20; PL X, fig. 25 (larval head); PL XI, fig. 7 (larva); PL XIX, figs. 5 and 6 (claspers). 

Catocala vidua Guenee {nee Abbot and Smith), Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 94. 

Catocala viduata Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep, VII, p. 400. Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, XVI, 

p. 385, PL lii, fig. 6 (larva). 
Catabapta mcestosa Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 53. 
Catocala guenei Grote, 1887, Can. Ent, XIX, p. 115. 
Catocala moderna Grote, 1900, Can. Ent, XXXII, p. 191. 

Hulst's action in bestowing the name of moestosa on this species was correct according to the rules of nomenclature 
and the species must stand under this name. Viduata Guenee, which has been used for the species, was merely a slight 
change of the name vidua in order to avoid conflicting with other noctuid species of similar name, as can be clearly seen 
from Guenee's remarks on page 399 of the seventh volume of his work; it was not, as claimed by some, a recognition of 
error in the identification of Abbot's species and the proposal of a new name for an undescribed species. As names based 
on misidentifications have no validity and as viduata was clearly based on a misidentiflcation of Abbot's species vidua, 
the name cannot stand. 

The species is readily separable from vidua by its larger size and the lack of dark shading above inner margin of pri- 
maries; moderna Grote is said to be based on an undersized specimen of this species and the name not worthy of being 
retained. 

Beutenmuller's description of the mature larva is the only notice of the early stages known to us; the figure (PL XI, 
fig. 7) is that of an immature specimen, data unknown. 

The range of the species is practically the same as that of vidua but it is generally rare in the Northern States, being 
apparently commonest in Texas and the Gulf States. 

Catocala lacrymosa Guenee 
Plate II, figs. 1-7; PL XIX, figs. 7 and 8 (claspers). 

Catocala lacrymosa Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep, VII, p. 93. Rowley and Berry, 1915, Can. Ent, XLVII, p. 338 

(larva). Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, XXXVIII, p. 155. 
Catocala ulalume Strecker, 1878, Lep. Rhop. Het, Mar, p. 132. 

Catocala lachrymosa var. paulina Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 54. 
Catocala lachrymosa var. evelina French, 1881, Papilio, I, p. 110. 
Catocala lachrymosa var. zelica French, 1881, Papilio, I, p. 111. 
Catocala lachrymosa var. emilia Hy. Edwards, 1881, Papilio, I, p. 117. 
Catocala lacrymosa form albomarginata Cassino, 1917, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 104. 

This species is a very variable one. The typical form may be known by the rather contrasted appearance of the 
maculation of the primaries with prominent white lunules on the inner margin marking the t. a. and t. p. lines; the female 
(PL II, fig. 7) is more contrastingly marked than the male (Fig. 1). The primaries tend to become more or less suffused 
with deep brown, which has given occasion for several names; in zelica French (Fig. 2) the brown area is confined to the 
base and the inner side of the s. t. line, producing a form corresponding to the form phalanga of palceogama; in evelina 
French — emilia Hy. Edwards — (Fig. 3) the brown suffuses the outer and inner margins, leaving the costal half of the 
median area gray; and in paulina Hy. Edwards (Figs. 4 and 5) the whole wing with the exception of the outer and inner 
margins is brown. Ulalume Strecker is a form the status of which is rather doubtful; figure 6 is taken from a cotype 
male in the Hulst Collection at Rutgers College, New Brunswick, New Jersey, and represents a duller, more evenly colored 
specimen than the typical male lacrymosa; the types came from the vicinity of San Antonio, Texas, and, until more 
material from this region is available, no definite conclusions can be reached. The mature larva is unknown, our own 
breeding experiments being successful only as far as the fourth larval stage, at which the larva is about half grown. 

The species is common in the Mississippi Valley (Arkansas and Missouri) and extends over the same territory as the 
other species of the group. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 15 

Catocala palaeogama Guenee 

PI. VI, figs. 18-20; PL XI, fig. 11, PI. XIII, fig. 4 (larva); PL XV, fig. 6 (larval head); PL XV, fig. 30, and PL XVII, 

fig. 5 (segments); PL XIX, figs. 17 and 18 (claspers). 

Catocala palceogama Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 97. French, 1888, Can. Ent., XX, p. 108 (larva). Beuten- 

muller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 388, PL lii, fig. 12 (larva). 
Catocala phalanga Grote, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Ill, p. 6, PL in, fig. 1. 
Catocala paleogama var. annida Fager, 1882, Can. Ent., XIV, p. 120. 

This common species is very similar to the preceding in its range of variation; as in lacrymosa, the females are more 
contrastingly marked than the males (PL VI, fig. 18) and we have much the same tendency to brown suffusion exhibited, 
the forms phalanga Grote (Fig. 19) and annida Fager (Fig. 20) corresponding to zelica and evelina respectively. 

The larval stages have been fully described by Prof. French and our own breeding experiments have verified his 
results. There are six larval stages with five molts. As the figure given by Beutenmuller (PL XI, fig. 11) is not entirely 
satisfactory, we have reflgured the larva on plate XIII, figure 4. 

The geographical distribution of this species corresponds with that of lacrymosa but it is much commoner in the 
Northern States and in Ontario. 

Catocala nebulosa Edwards 
Plate VI, fig. 17; PL XIX, figs. 9 and 10 (claspers). 

Catocala nebulosa Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 510. Rowley, 1912, Ent. News, XXIII, p. 209 (larva). 
Catocala ponderosa Grote and Robinson, 1866, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., VI, p. 23, PL iv, fig. 2. 

This species is readily recognizable from the figure; the dark basal area is very characteristic. 

Apart from Rowley's note on the young larvse and the statement that they refused to eat a number of the ordinary 
food-plants offered them on hatching, nothing is known of the early stages. 

The species is rare but wide-spread; it has been reported from as far north as Hamilton, Ontario (Johnston, 1901, 
Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1900, p. 40) and extends from the Mississippi and Ohio valleys into the Eastern States. 

Catocala subnata Grote 

Plate VI, figs. 15 and 16; PL XIX, figs. 13 and 14 (claspers). 
Catocala subnata Grote, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Ill, p. 326, PL iv, fig. 5. 

Apart from the paler secondaries with broader yellow postmedian band, this species may be distinguished from 
neogama by the paler gray color of the primaries with a tendency to develop a rather prominent white costal patch before 
the reniform. The males (PL VI, fig. 16) never show the black basal dash commonly (although not always) found in 
neogama males; the females are more contrastingly marked than the males and possess a basal dash but this is much 
narrower than in neogama females and is clean cut, without any of the dark shades above it so frequently seen in neogama. 

The early stages are unknown but the larva is probably a hickory-feeder. 

The species has been reported from Ontario (as far north as Ottawa) and Quebec and has a similar range to that of 
the preceding species. It is nowhere very common. 

Catocala neogama (Abbot and Smith) 

Plate VI, figs. 10-12; PL X, fig. 29 (larval head); PL XI, figs. 8 and 9 (larva); PL XIX, figs. 11 and 12 (claspers). 

Phalaena neogama Abbot and Smith, 1797, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Georgia, II, p. 175, PL Ixxxviii. Dodge, 1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, 
p. 299 (larva). Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 385, PL lii, fig. 5 (larva). Barnes and McDunnough, 
1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 156. 

Catocala communis Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 9. 

Catocala snowiana Grote, 1876, Check List North Amer. Noc, II, p. 41; 1882, Papilio, II, p. 8. 

We have already noted the points of distinction between this and the preceding species. Figure 10 of plate VI repre- 
sents a very pale male with only traces of the basal black streak; we have specimens before us that lack this streak entirely 



15 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

but have seen none that are any paler in color than the specimen figured; the average male is several shades darker, gen- 
erally with a much better defined black basal dash. Figure 11 represents an extremely dark female; the females are 
always .more contrastingly marked than the males and possess a prominent black basal dash; there is more or less brown- 
ish suffusion over the primaries, generally, however, less marked than in the figure. 

Grote, under the impression that Texan specimens collected by Belfrage approached more closely to neogama as 
figured by Abbot and Smith than did the northern form (vide Check List, 1876, part 2, p. 41), proposed for this latter the 
name communis. Abbot's figure is rather crude in coloration and we imagine that too great stress cannot be laid on the 
exact color of secondaries. We have specimens from Vicksburg, Mississippi, a locality much closer to Abbot's type 
locality than is the Texan locality, and these cannot be distinguished from the more northern form; we imagine, 
therefore, that communis is correctly treated as a synonym of neogama. 

Regarding the Texan form mentioned by Grote, we have a good series from San Antonio, Tiger Hill, and Black Jack 
Springs, Texas, before us and they certainly show the distinctive features mentioned by Grote. They would appear to 
be intermediate between neogama and euphemia, being a more even gray in both sexes with reduced brown shading, espe- 
cially in the female, and with very clean cut maculation; all the males before us possess the black basal streak and the 
two sexes show much greater similarity in the markings of the primaries than is found in typical neogama. The secondaries 
are paler orange with a rather broader postmedian band than is usual in the typical form. The male of this form might 
easily be confused with subnata if it were not for the basal streak on primaries. As the form seems to represent a distinct 
geographical race, we propose for it the name loretta, our types being 4 males and 3 females from the above mentioned 
localities in the Barnes Collection. 

Figure 12 of plate VI is that of the type female of snowiana Grote. As stated by the author himself, it is an aberration 
but the name was later extended (Papilio II, p. 8) to apply to a presumable race from Kansas which showed darker pri- 
maries and broader black bands on secondaries. We do not know how constant these points of distinction may be as 
we have no material from Kansas before us; several bred specimens, however, from Vinton, Iowa, in the collection seem 
to carry out this idea fairly well, so that the name may be used for a trans-Mississippi racial form. The adult larva, 
.which was quite recognizably figured by Abbot has been described several times; the full life-history is still a desidera- 
tum as our own breeding experiments failed to carry the larva beyond the fourth stage. In its rather rough, rugged 
appearance the larva bears a certain similarity to that of ilia. 

The species is quite common and wide-spread, extending throughout the eastern half of the United States and north- 
ward into Ontario and Quebec. 

Catocala euphemia Beutenmuller 
Plate VIII, fig. 26; PL XIX, figs. 15 and 16 (claspers). 
Catocala euphemia Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 938. 

Euphemia may be merely a southwestern race of neogama but, as there is some slight difference shown in the male 
claspers, we treat it as a species until the larval history is known. The even dark gray color of the primaries separates 
it from typical neogama. 

The types of this species were four males from the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, and from Texas. It would be well 
to limit the name to the Arizona type, as it is possible that the Texan specimens belong to our new form, loretta. 

SECTION II 

Catocala Schrank, 1802, Fauna Boica, II, 2, p. 158 (type, C.fraxini LinnaBus). 
Lamprosia Hubner, 1820, Samml. Exot. Schmett., II (type, amatrix Hiibner). 
Astiotes Hubner, 1825, Verzeichniss, p. 277 (type, dilecta Borkh.). 
Andrewsia Grote, 1882, New Check List, p. 41 (type, messalina Guenee). 

Fore tibise unspined; tarsi without the extra row of spines. 

As we have already mentioned, there are two exceptions to the latter clause: both aholihah and illecta show a fourth 
row of tarsal spines; the former is decidedly aberrant in other respects, and probably, with two European species, forms 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 17 

a group of good generic value; illecta, however, is apparently merely a connecting link between the previous section and 
this one, all its closest relatives being normal with respect to the tarsal spinulation. Hampson (1913, Cat. Lep. Phal. 
Brit. Mus., XII) unsuccessfully attempts to subdivide the group on the spining of the hind tibise, his genus Mormonia 
containing species with spines both above and between the spurs, while Catocala is restricted to species with only a few 
spines between the spurs and Ephesia contains those species with non-spined hind tibise. We have already shown, however, 
that Mormonia has been incorrectly applied, as the type, epione, belongs in the preceding section. We have found the 
spinulation very variable; some few species apparently have the hind tibise always well spined for nearly the full length 
(illecta) ; others, again, show a small group of spines near the base of the tibise and several spines between the spurs but in 
the same species each or even both of these groups may be entirely wanting. As an example of the variability and as a 
proof of the fallacy of such a method of subdivision, we might note that delilah Strecker is placed by Hampson in Mor- 
monia while its Arizona race, desdemona Hy. Edwards, is relegated to the genus Ephesia, which is characterized by entire 
lack of spining of hind tibise. In the genus Catocala, as restricted by Hampson, the same feature may be noted; in several 
species, notably of the babayaga group, the few spines normally found between the spurs may be entirely lacking in some 
specimens, while Hampson himself notes that in certain species included in Ephesia single spines occur between the spurs 
(molenta). 

Group VII 

(Astiotes Hubner) 

Egg large, hemispherical, minutely granulate but not ribbed. Larva with lateral filaments and transverse prominence 
on fifth abdominal segment. Male claspers symmetrical. A fourth row of tarsal spines present. 

The single North American species, aholibah Strecker, belonging to this group is closely related to the European species 
sponsa and dilecta. The male genitalia are entirely distinct from those of any other species and this, combined with the 
peculiar non-ribbed egg and the presence of a fourth row of tarsal spines, offers points of distinction which are probably of 
generic value. The larvse are oak-feeders. 

Catocala aholibah Strecker 

Plate III, figs. 1 and 2; PL XIV, fig. 6 (larva); PI. XV, fig. 9 (larval head); PI. XV, fig. 38, and 
PL XVI, fig. 13 (segments); PL XIX, figs. 19 and 20 (claspers). 

Catocala aholibah Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 72, PL ix, fig. 5. Barnes and McDunnough, 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 191 (larva). 
Catocala aholibah var. coloradensis Betjtenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 507. 

This well-known species is distinctly western in its range. It extends from Colorado, west of the divide, through 
Utah into New Mexico and Arizona and is common along the Pacific Coast from Vancouver Island, B. C, to southern 
California, occurring all through the Sierras at moderate elevations. 

The form coloradensis Beutenmuller, the type of which is before us, is based on large pale-colored females such as the 
specimen figured on plate III, figure 2. This form is, however, by no means constant in Colorado and forms no geographi- 
cal race; in our series bred from ova from Truckee, California, and Provo, Utah, about one-quarter of the specimens might 
be referred to coloradensis, the remainder being as dark as, or darker than, typical specimens. 

Group VIII 

Egg large, heavily ribbed; almost hemispherical. Larva rough and protuberant in appearance but without an actual 
wart on the fifth abdominal segment; lateral fringes present but short. Male claspers slightly asymmetrical; apices of 
claspers pointed but not projecting beyond the less chitinous ventral area; harpes spoon-shaped. 

The two species, ilia and zoe, included in this group are apparently, in the larval stages, a further development of the 
neogama type; they are readily distinguished in all three stages from other North American species but are intimately 
related one to the other. Both are oak-feeders. 



18 BARNES AND McDUNNOTJGH: CATOCALA 

Catocala ilia (Cramer) 

Plate VI, figs. 4-7; PI. X, fig. 26 (larval head); PL XII, fig. 9 (larva); PI. XIX, figs. 23 and 24 (claspers). 

Noctua ilia Cramer, 1775, Pap. Exot., I, p. 53, PI. xxxm, figs. B and C. French, 1884, Can. Ent., XVI, p. 12 (larva). Beutenmuller, 

1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 149. 
Catocala uxor Guenee, 1852, (nee Hiibner, 1802) Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 92. 
Catocala ilia var. obsoleta Worthington, 1883, Papilio, III, p. 40. 
Catocala ilia var. umbrosa Worthington, 1883, Papilio, III, p. 41. 
Catocala ilia var. decorata Worthington, 1883, Papilio, III, p. 41. 
Catocala ilia var. confusa Worthington, 1883, Papilio, III, p. 41. 

Catocala ilia var. conspicua Worthington, 1883, Papilio, III, p. 40. Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 150. 
Catocala ilia var. duplicata Worthington, 1883, Papilio, III, p. 40. 
Catocala ilia var. albomacula Butler, 1892, Entomol., XXV, p. 284. 
Catocala ilia var. normani Bartsch, 1916, The Lepidopterist I, p. 3, PI. i. 

This common species is very variable in the coloration of the reniform and the surrounding area and Worthington 
has given names to almost all the forms which occur, his types now being in the Barnes Collection. The typical form, 
according to Cramer's figure, has the reniform dark but ringed with white, the subrenif orm white, and the ordinary cross- 
lines partially marked with white much as in decorata Worthington. Holland's figure (PL xxxiv, fig. 7), under the name 
osculata Hulst, is fairly typical of ilia. The most conspicuous form is that with the solid white reniform (PL VI, fig. 7), 
which for a long while has gone under the name uxor Guenee but, as this name is preoccupied by uxor Hiibner, the name 
conspicua Worthington must be used. Figure 4 is taken from a small Newfoundland specimen and represents the dark 
unicolorous form umbrosa Worthington; figure 5, with the subrenif orm better defined, is confusa Worthington; and figure 
6 is close to duplicata Worthington, which typically has the subrenif orm, as well as the reniform, entirely white; obsoleta 
Worthington is similar to the typical form but without the white subreniform; normani Bartsch is suffused with brown in 
the median area. 

The larva has been described several times; the description of the early stages by Prof. French is very accurate and 
is confirmed by our own observations; Rowley records (1909, Ent. News, XX, pp. 128 and 129) five larval molts, but this 
is erroneous; there are only four. The larval figure given by Beutenmuller (PL XII, fig. 9) is poor, as the larva is repre- 
sented with altogether too smooth an appearance; in reality it is quite rough, each segment showing dorsal and lateral 
protuberances somewhat similar to those found in neogama larvae but more pronounced; it is practically identical with 
the larva of zoe which Mr. Prince has excellently reproduced on plate XIV, figure 5. 

The species ranges over the whole eastern half of the United States, extending from Texas and Florida northward to 
Newfoundland, Quebec, Ontario, and Minnesota. It is one of the earliest species on the wing; we personally have taken 
the imago in Florida in late April and in Illinois it is generally abundant in June and July. 

Catocala zoe Behr 

Plate VI, figs. 8 and 9; PL XIV, fig. 5 (larva); PL XV, fig. 10 (larval head); PL XV, fig. 42, and PL XVI, fig. 10 (segments). 

Catocala zoe Behr, 1870, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, III, p. 24. Barnes and McDtjnnough, 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 189 (larva). 
Catocala ilia var. osculata Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 43. 
Catocala reiffi Cassino, 1917, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 62, PI. iv. 

This species has generally been treated as the western race of ilia but we see no reason for not considering it a good 
species. It is distinguished by its paler-colored secondaries, which are salmon-colored or orange, and the grayer tone of the 
primaries, which lack the velvety tinge of ilia and have a smaller reniform and more evenly dentate t. p. line; we have 
seen none of the variability in coloration of the reniform and surrounding areas so commonly met with in ilia. Hulst 
applied the name osculata to a form with yellow secondaries; Holland's figure under this name should be referred to ilia, 
as already noted. Reiffi, recently described as a new species by Mr. S. Cassino, seems, as far as can be judged from the 
figure, to be merely a small form of zoe; the author places it next to zoe but neglects to state any point of maculation 
whereby it may be separated from this species. 

The larva is extremely close to that of ilia, so close as to render it optional whether zoe be treated as a race of ilia 
or as a good species. 

The range of zoe is from Colorado, west of the divide, southward into Arizona and westward into California; in the 
north it is recorded from Cartwright, Manitoba (1917, Can. Ent. XLIX, p. 89) and Henry Edwards mentions it from 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 19 

Vancouver Island (J875, Pac. Coast Lep. No. 14, p. 8) but this record needs verification; it is not included in the List 
of the British Columbia Entomological Society. The type locality is Searsville, California, a place we have been unable 
to find on the map but probably in either Napa or Marin Counties, to judge by Hy. Edwards' remarks in the article above 
cited. 

Group IX 

Egg small, hemispherical, faintly ribbed. Larva smooth, without a wart on the fifth abdominal segment; lateral 
filaments present but obsolescent. Male claspers almost symmetrical, with apex rather blunt. 

The nearest relative of the single North American species, cerogama, included in this group is apparently lara from 
Siberia and Japan. The larva is quite primitive in its type of maculation and is almost without filaments; the peculiar 
enlargement of tubercles II on the eighth abdominal segment to form short dorsal horns is quite characteristic and tends 
to remind one of the larva? of palceogama and aholibah. The male claspers are almost symmetrical but the left clasper 
shows a peculiar raised bunch of tooth-like prominences near the base of the harpe. The food-plant of the larva is Tilia. 

Catocala cerogama Guenee 

Plate VI, fig. 1; PL XIX, figs. 21 and 22 (claspers). 

Catocala cerogama Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 96. Rowley and Berry, 1909, Ent. News, XX, p. 17 (ovum); 

1910, Ent. News, XXI, p. 105 (larva). 
Catocala cerogama var. bunkeri Grote, 1876, Can. Ent., VIII, p. 230. 
Catocala cerogama var. aurella Fischer, 1885, Can. Ent., XVII, p. 133. 
Catocala cerogama var. eliza Fischer, 1885, Can. Ent., XVII, p. 134. 

The maculation of the secondaries easily distinguishes this species from the other yellow-winged ones. Several 
aberrational forms have received names. Bunkeri Grote is characterized as having "the band on secondaries extremely 
narrow and the yellow basal shade entirely lost. On the fore wings the median space is deeply brown tinted." Aurella, 
to judge by the description, is a form with a bright yellow and clearly defined basal area on secondaries and eliza has promi- 
nent white shading on the costa before the reniform, at the apex of the wing, and on the inner margin below the 
subrenif orm. We have been unable to give a figure of the larva, the only material before us being a very poorly inflated 
specimen. 

The species is distinctly northern in its distribution; it is common in Ontario and Quebec, extending south through the 
New England States to Virginia and west through the Ohio Valley to Missouri; in the northern portion it ranges westward 
into Manitoba (1917, Can. Ent., XLIX, p. 89). 

Group X 

{Catocala Schrank) 

Egg hemispherical, ribbed, the ribs branching irregularly below apex. Larva with lateral filaments and a transverse 
wart on the fifth abdominal segment. Male claspers somewhat asymmetrical, apex of left clasper being pointed and 
extending well beyond the thinly chitinized ventral area. 

We have included, for the sake of convenience, relicta and marmot ata in this group. In the former species the claspers 
are practically symmetrical, the apices rounded, and the harpe is narrowly triangular, but both egg and larva show great 
affinity to those of the other members of the group; in marmorata the claspers and their armature point to quite a distinct 
form but nothing is known of the early stages, so we place the species provisionally in this group. The larvae, as far as is 
known, are willow- and poplar-feeders and have normally four molts, relicta varying in having five. 

This group is the most extensive in the genus, including a large number of our western forms which are apparently 
of quite recent origin and still in a rather unstable condition, as is shown by the great tendency to form local races and the 
variability in the color and maculation of the primaries, often making it extremely difficult to place single specimens 
correctly. The similarity of the male genitalia and their tendency to slight variation within the species render these 
useless as a means of specific differentiation and give further proof of the recent origin of the group. 



20 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 



Catocala relicta Walker 



Plate I, figs. 9-13; PL XIII, fig. 14 (larva); PL XV, fig. 5 (larval head); PL XVI, fig. 14, 
and PL XVII, fig. 10 (segments); PL XIX, figs. 25 and 26 (claspers). 

Catocala relicta Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1192. Clajik, 1888, Can. Ent., XX, p. 17 (larva). Beuten- 

MfiLLER, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 505. Rowley and Berry, 1910, Ent. News, XXI, p. 109 (larva). 
Catocala relicta var. bianca Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 54. 
Catocala relicta var. phrynia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 54. 
Catocala elda Behrens, 1887, Can. Ent., XIX, p. 199. 
Catocala relicta var. clara Betjtenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 506. 

The typical form of this species is the dark one figured on plate I, figures 9 and 13; the form which for a long time 
was erroneously considered to be typical has been named clara by Beutenmuller (Fig. 11); bianca Hy. Edwards is a syn- 
onym of the typical form; and phrynia Hy. Edwards (Fig. 10) is the form with even gray primaries. Elda Behrens (Fig. 
12) was described as a good species from Portland, Oregon, but is at the best a mere geographical race found on the Pacific 
Coast from British Columbia to Oregon; it is distinguished by its very dark primaries (darker than phrynia) and narrow- 
banded secondaries, the band usually showing traces of violet shading; it is apparently best defined on Vancouver Island, 
B. C, for specimens before us from the interior of Washington State can scarcely be separated from phrynia. 

The species is a near ally of the European fraxini Linnaeus and the relationship is clearly shown in the larvae, which 
are extremely close. Clark, in his otherwise excellent account of the larval stages, has omitted one of the molts; this is 
rectified by Rowley and Berry, our own breeding experiments verifying their statement that there are five molts. 

In the northern woods of Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec the species is quite common and extends through the New 
England States into New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. In the Middle West it occurs in the border states but 
has not been reported south of northern Illinois and Iowa. Snow records it from Idaho Springs, Colorado, and we have 
a single specimen before us of the form clara from Provo, Utah. In the southern portion of its area of distribution it is 
scattered and rare, being distinctly a northern species. The race elda, as already noted, occurs in the northern Pacific 
States. 

Catocala marmorata Edwards 

Plate III, fig. 19; PL XIX, figs. 27 and 28 (claspers). 

Catocala marmorata Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 508. Strecker, 1874, Lep. Phop. Het., 73, PL ix, fig. 6. 

The original description states that Yreka, Siskiyou County, California, is the type locality of this striking species 
but we imagine this to be an error. Strecker's figure is drawn from the type specimen, which at that time was in the 
collection of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia; at the present time it is misplaced or lost, Edwards having probably 
never troubled to place a type label on the specimen, as is the case with so many of his diurnal species. Fortunately, 
Strecker's figure leaves no doubt as to the identity. 

The species is wide-spread but everywhere rare and nothing is known of its early stages. It extends along the Atlantic 
Coast from Vermont to North Carolina and westward through the Ohio Valley to Missouri; it has also been recorded 
from southern Ontario and Wisconsin. 

Catocala parta Guenee 

Plate III, fig. 14; PL X, fig. 34 (larval head); PL XI, fig. 4 (larva); PL XIII, fig. 10 (larva); PL XX, 

figs. 1 and 2 (claspers). 

Catocala porta , Guenee 1852 Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep VII, p. 84, PI. XVI , fig. 1. Beutenm ULL er, 190 2, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

XVI, p 387, PI. li , fig^9 (larva). Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 157. 
Catocala porta var. perplexa Strecker, 1873, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 38, PI. v, fig. 11. 
Catocala parta var. petulans Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc!, VII,' p. 43. 

This species is fairly constant in maculation and may be known by its pale gray primaries and salmon-colored 
secondaries. Perplexa Strecker is a form with rather darker ground-color of primaries and an obliqne white area from 
costa to subremform; petulans Hulst was based on a specimen with yellowish secondaries. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 



21 



Besides Beutenmiiller's figure of the larva on plate XI, figure 4, a figure which is rather more characteristic will be found 
on plate XIII, figure 10, drawn from material collected around Decatur, Illinois. 

The species is distinctly a northern one. It is common through Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, and the eastern 
half of the United States with the exception of the Gulf States and the southern Atlantic ones. It has been reported from 
Colorado and we have a few specimens from the vicinity of Provo, Utah, where it appears to be rare. 



Catocala luciana Strecker 

Plate VII, figs. 21-23; PL XX, figs. 3 and 4 (claspers). 

Catocala luciana Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 99. Hy. Edwards, 1875, Pacific Coast Lep., 14, p. 5. Rowley, 1913, Ent. 

News, XXIV, p. 197 (larva). Barnes and McDtjnnottgh, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 158. 
Catocala nebraskce Dodge, 1875, Can. Ent., VII, p. 2. 
Catocala nebraskce var. somnus Dodge, 1881, Can. Ent., XIII, p. 40. 

The excellent figures of this species should render it easily identifiable. The form with dark blackish primaries 
(Fig. 23) has been named somnus by Dodge; it occurs along with the type form. 

The larva is very similar to that of briseis and verecunda; we have noted the main points of distinction in our article 
on the life-history. Our breeding was, unfortunately, done too late to permit of a figure being included in these present 
plates. 

The species is a native of the prairies, occurring in the states west of the Mississippi as far as the foot-hills of the 
Rocky Mountains. It has been reported as rare in southern Manitoba (Gibson, 1910, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1909, p. 118) 
and is fairly common in the vicinity of Minneapolis, Minnesota, from which locality our breeding material came. We 
have no records of its occurrence south of Kansas. 

The name luciana has generally been ascribed to Hy. Edwards but, unfortunately, the rules of nomenclature demand 
that this species along with mariana, hippolyta, cleopatra, and perdita (all described in the same paper) be credited to 
Strecker who drew up descriptions, using Hy. Edwards' manuscript names, and published them prior to the appearance of 
Hy. Edwards' descriptions in No. 14 of his Pacific Coast Lepidoptera. This procedure is somewhat of an injustice to 
Hy. Edwards and throws no very creditable light on Strecker's methods, but we imagine that "Time, the great healer," 
whom Mr. Strecker was so fond of invoking, has already smoothed over any ill-feeling that might have arisen in this 
connection. 

Catocala verecunda Hulst 

Plate VIII, figs. 1-5, 8, 9, and 11; PL XIII, fig. 11 (larva); PL XV, fig. 15 (larval head); PL XVI, 
fig. 21, and PL XVII, fig. 7 (segments); PL XX, figs. 5 and 6 (claspers). 

Catocala verecunda Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 45. Barnes and McDtjnnottgh, 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 199 (larva, 

as faustina) . 
Catocala diantha Betjtenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 937. Barnes and McDtjnnottgh, 1913, Psyche, XX, 

p. 200. 

Verecunda is very closely allied to luciana Hy. Edwards, and its form diantha (PL VIII, fig. 9) would correspond to the 
dark form, somnus, of luciana. The best point of distinction between the two species, which occur together in eastern 
Colorado, seems to be found in the color of the secondaries, which in luciana show a marked salmon tinge much as in 
parta while in verecunda the color inclines toward pink, in some cases, especially in bred specimens, being bright carmine. 

Typical verecunda, of which figure 1 of plate VIII is the best representation, has the cross-lines showing very prominently 
on a gray background; the female (Fig. 2) is rather more contrastingly marked; figures 3 and 4 are listed by Beutenmiiller 
under this name and we presume are slight varietal forms of this species ; figure 5 was unnamed in the text but would 
appear to us, as far as can be judged from a mere figure, to be best referred here. Diantha is well represented by figure 9; 
Beutenmiiller has also listed figure 8 under this name, but the figure looks to us rather doubtful and might possibly refer 
to a hermia form. Figure 11, listed as a variety of faustina, we imagine better placed under diantha; it is a peculiar suffused 
form of rather mossy appearance, with distinct ruddy shades following the t. p. line; the original of the figure is before us 
from Denver, Colorado, and we also have a single specimen from Provo, Utah. 



22 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

In 1913, as a result of breeding, we ventured the assertion that verecunda was merely a variety of faustina; as a result 
of further breeding experiments in 1914, in which each batch of ova from known females was kept separate, we have come 
to the conclusion that this was a mistake and that we have in verecunda a valid species with diantha as a dark variety. 
Ova of both verecunda and diantha hatch from one to two weeks earlier than those of faustina and the period of hatching is 
not very extended, occupying scarcely more than a week, while in faustina ova from a single female may hatch singly and 
in small numbers for a period of more than a month. We were uniformly successful in bringing larvge of verecunda and 
diantha to pupation, but failed notably with faustina and its forms, although using the same food-plant. Most larvae 
died before reaching the third stage, but we were finally successful in bringing a few larvae to maturity; these proved to 
be distinct in the later stages from those of verecunda, although closely related. 

The species is distinctly a Rocky Mountain form. The type series came from Montana and the species is common 
throughout Colorado and Utah, west of the divide; it has also been taken in the canyons near Denver and in this region 
is found together with luciana, with which it is liable to be confused. Southward it extends into New Mexico and Arizona 
and in the north it has been recorded from Cartwright, Manitoba (1917, Can. Ent., XLIX, p. 90). 

Catocala irene Behr 

Plate IV, figs. 9-13; PL XIII, fig. 13 (larva); PL XV, fig. 21 (larval head); PL XVI, figs. 6 and 
18 (segments); PL XX, figs. 7 and 8 (claspers). 

Catocala irene Behr, 1870, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, III, p. 24. Hy. Edwards, 1875, Pacific Coast Lep., XIV, p. 5. Barnes and 

McDunnough, 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 202 (larva). 
Catocala irene var. virgilia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 56. 
Catocala irene var. volumnia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 56. 
Catocala irene var. Valeria Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 56. 

According to Hy. Edwards, who had opportunities of examining the type specimen (since destroyed) the typical form is 
the one with rather even brown primaries, such as is figured on plate IV, figures 9 and 10; a specimen of this form, marked 
"true to type," exists in the Hy. Edwards' Collection in The American Museum of Natural History, New York. The 
form virgilia (Fig. 11), which occurs along with the type form, is strongly suffused with black-brown on the primaries 
and the rarer form volumnia (Fig. 12) is much paler, with white shades preceding and following the reniform and defining 
outwardly the t. p. line. Figure 13 depicts a very brilliant female specimen from Los Angeles; we have other similar ones 
before us from San Diego County and it is possible that these may be closer to the typical form, described from Fort Tejon, 
San Bernardino County, California, than those identified as such by Henry Edwards, whose material came largely from 
Mendocino County, California, a much more northern locality. Specimens frequently occur with a diffuse dark basal 
streak, at times extending almost the entire length of the submedian fold. 

The form Valeria Hy. Edwards (Fig. 10) represents a good geographical race occurring in the western Rocky Mountain 
region from Utah to Arizona; it is characterized by the pale even brown color of the primaries and the narrow black median 
band of secondaries. 

The larva of the more typical Californian forms has never been bred and, nntil this is done, knowledge concerning the 
relationship between the forms remains unsatisfactory; in the case of volumnia, we may be dealing with a race or even a 
good spec.es. Our own larval notes were drawn up from material of the race Valeria from Provo, Utah 

The species extends through California from Mendocino County to San Diego County, 'it probably will be found 
at considerable altitudes in the Sierras, as we have specimens before us of a rather paler, smaller form from the vicinity 
of Truckee. Beutenmuller records the variety volumnia from Cartwright, Manitoba, but this needs verification; as 
already stated, the race Valeria is found in the Rocky Mountains of Utah and Arizona. 

Catocala allusa Hulst 

Plate V, fig. 15; PI. XX, figs. 9 and 10 (claspers). 

Catocala allusa Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Enf Sop vtt ^ ak t? 

Catocala frenchii Pol^g, 1901, Can. Ent!, X^S P- X Beotenm ™> 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 147. 

The figure given (PI. V, fig. 15) is not very satisfactory; the specimen figured is smaller than usual and shows none 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 23 

of the pale lilac-gray coloration of primaries which is characteristic of this species; ordinarily, the t. a. line is even more 
dentate than in the figure, the tooth above the inner margin being very prominent; the black dash in inedian area below 
the subreniform is not constant. 

Figure 14 of plate V is listed by Beutenmiiller as a dark form of calif ornica from Cartwright, Manitoba. We have seen 
nothing from this locality which agrees with this figure; it is certainly not calif ornica as we have identified it but might 
possibly be referred tentatively to alius a. Even so, the locality is strange and leaves some doubt in our mind as to the 
authenticity of the label. 

Of the early stages of this species nothing is known and until they have been worked out the relationships with other 
allied forms will not be fully known. , 

The range of the species is from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, southward through Washington and Oregon 
and down the Sierras into central California. We took the species at moderate elevation in Siskiyou County and have 
several specimens before us from the vicinity of Truckee. The record of Colorado given by Beutenmiiller from specimens 
in the Doll Collection needs verification; our own experience of the labelling of the noctuids in this collection is that it is 
not at all accurate. 

Catocala faustina Strecker 

Plate V, figs. 16-20; PI. XX, figs. 11 and 12 (claspers). 

Catocala faustina Strecker, 1873, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 21, PI. in, fig. 8. Barnes and McDunnotjgh, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., XXXVIII, p. 160. 
Catocala faustina var. zillah Strecker, 1878, Lep. Rhop. Het., March, p. 129. 
Catocala faustina var. carlota Beutenmuller, 1897,*Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., IX, p. 212, fig. 1. 
Catocala faustina var. lydia Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 939. 
Catocala cwrulea Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 939. 

This species shows great variability in the coloration and maculation of the primaries and probably tends to form 
local races. The typical form is fairly well represented on plate V, figure 16, although the color of primaries is possibly 
rather too deep, the ground tint being usually of a pale blue-gray or a light ochreous gray; Holland's figure (PI. xxxiii, 
fig. 3) well represents this latter form. Zillah Strecker was described as a form in which considerable pinkish suffusion is 
intermingled with the gray of the primaries; the author neglected to state that his type also showed a blackish streak 
running through the submedian fold and we believe it would be well to restrict the name to such forms, as the amount 
of pink is very variable and occurs in specimens with and without this basal streak. Figure 17 represents the form well; 
it occurs together with the typical one. A form with heavy black suffusion over the greater part of the primaries has been 
called lydia by Beutenmuller and the type is figured on figure 18; this also occurs together with typical faustina but not 
so commonly as zillah. Carulea Beutenmuller of which figure 19 is a representation of the type, is probably a race found 
in Oregon and extending into southern British Columbia; it was described as a good species and differs horn faustina in 
the deep blue-gray color of the primaries ; we have been unable to match it with any of our material. Carlota Beutenmuller 
(Fig. 20) is apparently a mere aberrational female, possibly not even of faustina; it was described from a single female from 
Lake Tahoe, California, and no other specimens are known; we have specimens from Utah which approach it but are not 
nearly so extreme. 

The species has been generally confused with verecunda but is somewhat smaller and narrower winged; specimens 
with considerable ruddy suffusion are easily identified, since verecunda shows practically none of this coloration. We 
would call attention to the peculiar scale formation found in the reniform and beyond the t, p. line, the scales being placed 
so as to give an appearance of distinct minute vertical ribbing; this is generally quite well marked in faustina but scarcely 
at all noticeable in verecunda forms and has served very satisfactorily in many instances to separate faustina from its 
allies. The same scaling is found in briseis and its races, which, however, are not so liable to be confused with faustina. 

The larval history, especially the last two stages, clearly proves that faustina is specifically distinct. We regret that 
we are unable to give a figure of the mature larva, but our efforts to breed the species were successful only after the plates 
had been completed; we have noted the main points of distinction in our article on the life-history. 

The species is typically a Rocky Mountain form, occurring west of the divide and being particularly common in 
Utah; records from the East are most certainly erroneous and based on misidentifications. In the Sierras we find the 
species common in the Lake Tahoe region, the specimens being rather smaller than Utah ones; it probably extends along 



24 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 



the eastern slopes of these mountains into Oregon, where we meet with the presumable race ccerulea which has also been 
reported (Gibson, 1911, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1910, p. Ill) from Penticton, British Columbia. Concerning its range 
in the northern Rocky Mountain States we have no data, although there seems to be no reason why it should not occur 
here. Beutenmiiller's manuscript records it from Montana and Wyoming. 

Catocala cleopatra Strecker 

Plate V, figs. 12 and 13; PI. XX, figs. 17 and 18 (claspers). 

Catocala cleopatra Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 99. Hy. Edwards, 1875, Pacific Coast Lep., XIV, p. 2. 
Catocala perdita Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 100. Hy. Edwards, 1875, Pacific Coast Lep., XIV, p. 4. 

The species has been generally listed as a variety of californica but, as our conception of this latter species is different 
from the usual one, we treat cleopatra as a good species until it can be bred and its relationships determined. We credit 
the species to Strecker for reasons already stated under luciana; there is, however, no type of cleopatra in the Strecker 
Collection nor did he mention it in his list of types. The specimen from the same locality which served Hy. Edwards 
for his description and which presumably may be considered a metatype exists in the American Museum at New York 
and a photograph of it lies before us. The type of perdita is in the Strecker Collection in Chicago and of this also we 
have a photograph. From a comparison of these photographs and a personal knowledge of the specimens we cannot 
see that perdita is anything but a slightly better marked form of cleopatra with rather more white shading before the 
reniform; the worn nature of the perdita type gives it a rather different appearance, which has erroneously led to its 
being referred as a variety of faustina. Cleopatra is well represented on plate V, figure 12 and perdita by figure 13; in 
our opinion, the latter name is scarcely worth retaining; the primaries have a certain olivaceous mossy appearance which 
is quite lacking in all species except francisca and show the same peculiar scale formation around the reniform as is found 
in faustina. Holland's figure (PL xxxv, fig. 14) is certainly not cleopatra; it looks to us more like hermia than any thing- 
else; his figure 13 on same plate (as stretchi) looks closer to true cleopatra but might be a briseis form; without a knowledge 
of the actual specimen it is impossible to tell. Nothing is known of the early stages. 

The two forms of this species were described from specimens from Contra Costa County and San Mateo County, 
California. We have a fine series before us from Alameda County and others from the vicinity of San Francisco. As 
far as we know, the true species is confined to the territory around San Francisco Bay and other records must be regarded 
with great doubt until more is known of the species. 

Catocala californica Edwards 

Plate V, fig. 1; PI. XIII, fig. 9 (larva); PL XV, fig. 14 (larval head); PI. XVI, fig. 19, and PL XVII, fig. 1 (segments); 

PL XX, figs. 13 and 14 (claspers). 

Catocala californica Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 509. Barnes and McDunnough, 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 200 (larva). 
Catocala mariana Strecker {nee Rambur), 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 99. Hy. Edwards, 1875, Pacific Coast Lep., XIV, p. 3. 
Catocala edwardsi Kusnezov, 1903, Rev. Russe Ent., Ill, p. 76. 
Catocala eldoradensis Betjtenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 148. 

This species has probably caused more confusion in regard to its identity than any other species of North American 
Catocala. Edwards' description from a specimen from Yreka, California, is very inadequate and might apply equally 
well to half a dozen Californian forms. Strecker, who had an opportunity of examining the type specimen (at that time 
in the Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia), figured on plate xi, figure 13 of his Lep. Rhop. Het. 
a specimen collected by T. L. Mead in Colorado under the name of californica; we have seen this specimen in his collec- 
tion and it bears the following label " Catocala californica Edwards, Idaho Springs, Colorado: original of figure in Lep. 
Rhop. Het. (one of original types)." Strecker's coloration of his figure is seen to be much too light when compared with 
the original, which has quite dark primaries and is without doubt a specimen of hermia Hy. Edwards. Strecker's state- 
ment on the label that this was one of the original types cannot, of course, be accepted in view of the wide divergence of 
localities, unless we presuppose a wrong labelling of specimens for which there is apparently no ground. In view, how- 
ever, of Strecker's excellent eye for species we believe we must expect the true californica to be so close to hermia as to 
render Strecker's misidentification easily possible. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 25 

The original type of califomica cannot now be found at Philadelphia. Strecker claims (Lep. Rhop. Het. Suppl., 
Ill, p. 35) to have it in his collection but a careful search on our part through his Catocala series has failed to produce it. 
On a recent visit to Pittsburg, we discovered among the noctuids of the Mead Collection, now in the Carnegie Museum 
Collection, a specimen labelled "Yreka, Calif." which proved to be what has generally been known as mariana Edwards. 
As mariana certainly possesses a great resemblance to hermia, especially in its lighter forms, and as the locality is the same 
as that of the type, we believe that this specimen may have been one of the type lot, especially when we take into con- 
sideration that Mead was the son-in-law of W. H. Edwards and probably the collector of the original type. We pro- 
pose, therefore, to consider this specimen as typifying the true califomica and list mariana as a synonym. Our own collect- 
ing experiences in the Shasta region (which is only slightly south of Yreka) would point to this identification being correct 
or at least not improbable, for among the Catocalas collected we found that mariana was vastly predominant, the only 
other species which might come into consideration being alius a Hulst, which was decidedly rare. 

Regarding mariana, it has already been twice pointed out that the name is preoccupied in the genus by mariana 
Rambur; the names edwardsi Kusnezov and eldoradensis Beutenmiiller, proposed to supercede it, will both fall into the 
synonymy. Beutenmiiller is, however, incorrect in stating (1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 148) that the 
specimen from which Strecker's description of mariana was drawn up was a different species from that specimen which 
served as a type to Hy. Edwards a year later. We have examined both specimens and have photographs of them before 
us; they are simply light and dark forms of the same species, Strecker's specimen being more white-shaded before the 
reniform and approaching more closely to hermia in general appearance than does Hy. Edwards' type specimen, which 
agrees better with the figure on plate V, figure 1. We have bred both forms from ova laid by a single female from Truckee, 
California, and the long series from various localities before us show each to be about equally common. 

The larva is very similar to that of briseis; apart from a rather deeper brown ground-color, there is nothing whereby 
it might be distinguished. 

The species extends from Vancouver Island and the British Columbian mainland southward through the Cascades 
and the Sierras to central California and appears to be one of the commonest species throughout this territory. 

Catocala francisca Hy. Edwards 
Plate XX, figs. 19 and 20 (claspers). 
Catocala mariana var. francisca Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 57. 

Beutenmiiller has given no figure of this species, which may be merely a form or race of the preceding. The types 
were collected in Humboldt County, California; we have a few specimens which agree with these types but bear no further 
label than " California." We doubtfully refer here a single specimen from the Yosemite Valley and another one from the 
vicinity of San Francisco. These specimens appear to be larger and more robust than califomica and show a peculiar 
greenish tinge over the rather unicolorous dark primaries. Until further specimens are available and the life-history 
can be worked out, we prefer to treat this as a good species. 

Catocala hermia Hy. Edwards 

Plate V, figs. 2 and 11; PL XX, figs. 15 and 16 (claspers). 

Catocala hermia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, II, p. 93. 

Catocala hermia form vesta Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, The Lepidopterist, II, pp. 9-11. 

Figure 11 of plate V is only doubtfully referred here; Beutenmiiller lists it as califomica but we have already referred 
to his misidentification of this species. Figure 2 represents the dark form, which is typical; the form with even blue- 
gray primaries we have named vesta. 

Dyar's description of the larva from Placer County, California, (Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. IV, p. 327) should probably 
be referred to califomica. Our own knowledge of the larva is that it is so close to that of briseis as scarcely to be separable; 
the imagines, however, are quite distinct and can be separated easily by the nature of the scaling around the reniform 
and beyond the t. p. line, which in hermia shows scarcely a trace of vertical ribbing. 



26 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA. 

The species is found in the central Rocky Mountain States; we possess it from western Colorado (Glenwood Spring 
and Utah; and Snow records it from Idaho Springs, Colorado, and Las Vegas, New Mexico. More intensive collecting 
will probably disclose a wider range than the above mentioned states. 

Catocala briseis Edwards 

Plate III, figs. 5, 6, and 8; PI. XIII, fig. 7 (larva); PI. XV, fig. 17 (larval head); PL XVI, fig. 17, 
and PI. XVII, fig. 4 (segments); PL XX, figs. 21 and 22 (claspers). 

Catocala briseis Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. II, p. 508; Strecker, 1872, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 20, PL in, fig. 7. Barnes and 

McDunnotjgh, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 162. 
Catocala briseis var. albida Betjtenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 936. 
Catocala minerva Cassino, 1917, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 63, PL iv. 

This well-known species is not liable to be confused in its typical form with any other of its allies. This form is shown 
on plate III, figure 5; the broad band following the t. p. line and showing the distinct vertical ribbing to which we have 
several times alluded is quite characteristic. In Manitoba the species tends to paler forms culminating in albida Beuten- 
muller, the type of which is figured on plate III, figure 8; figure 6 is a transitional form, probably also from Manitoba, 
which is fairly common. In Utah the species is very large and occurs in two forms, a dark one very similar to the typical 
form and a paler, rather even gray one which has been described as a new species by S. Cassino under the name minerva 
but which we think without doubt should be referred to briseis. 

The larva is closely allied to those of verecunda, calif ornica, hermia, luciana, and faustina, and possibly to a few other 
species of which the early stages are unknown (allusa and cleopatra). 

The species is entirely northern in its distribution and occurs through Canada from Newfoundland to British Columbia; 
it extends southward through the New England States to New York and New Jersey. Ehrman records it as rare in the 
vicinity of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania (1892, Ent. News, III, p. 169) but Engel omits it in his List of Lepidoptera of Western 
Pennsylvania so that apparently the species has disappeared from this neighborhood. Westcott records it from Cook 
County, Illinois (1876, Can. Ent., VIII, p. 16) and it is found in Michigan, Wisconsin, and the border states farther west. 
In the Rocky Mountain region, our only records are from the vicinity of Provo, Utah, but it probably occurs in the 
neighboring states; we also have the species from eastern Washington where it tends to forms similar to those found in 
Manitoba. 

Catocala grotiana Bailey 

Plate III, fig. 7; PL XIV, fig. 4 (larva); PL XV fig. 4 (larval head); PL XVI, fig. 15, and PL XVII, fig. 2 (segments); 

PL XX, figs. 23 and 24 (claspers). 

Catocala grotiana Bailey, 1879, North Amer. Ent., I, p. 21. Barnes and McDunnotjgh, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, 
p. 163. 

Superficially, this species resembles briseis but may be distinguished by its larger size, the broad, white s. t. band 
and the fact that the t. p. line rarely has a strong inward bend above the inner margin. 

The larva, when mature, is totally different from that of briseis, thus amply establishing the validity of the species. 
It would appear to be most closely related to the pur a group. 

The species is rather rare in the central Rocky Mountain States beyond the divide. We have specimens from Glen- 
wood Springs, Colorado, and the vicinity of Provo, Utah. Snow (Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci, VIII, p. 38) reports it from Las 
Vegas, New Mexico, and Beutenmiiller's manuscript records "Huachuca Mts., Arizona." The record from the Kaslo 
district of British Columbia given by Dyar (1904, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXVII, p. 878) needs verification; it is probably 
based on a form of briseis. 

Catocala meskei Grote 

Plate IV, fig. 8; PL XX, figs. 25 and 26 (claspers). 

Catocala meskei Grote, 1873, Can. Ent., V, p. 161. Bunker, 1883, Can. Ent., XV, p. 100 (larva). 
Catocala rosalinda Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 55. 

This species is often confused with unijuga; it is, however, paler in the color of the primaries, with a tendency to show 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 27 

the dark streak through the submedian fold found in faustina. The area beyond the t. p. line shows a very distinct vertical 
ribbing and the secondaries tend toward salmon color, in this respect resembling parta. 

Apart from Bunker's short note on the larva, nothing is known of the life-history. 

The species is wide-spread but apparently nowhere very common. It is found throughout the New England States, 
extending south into northern New York and westward through Quebec and Ontario into Manitoba, where it is rare (1917, 
Can. Ent., XLIX, p. 90) ; farther south, in Iowa, South Dakota, and Nebraska, it is commoner, specimens before us from 
the last named state being very dark in appearance. We have a single specimen from Denver, Colorado, which we are 
inclined to refer here. 

Catocala unijuga Walker 

Plate I, fig. 19; PL IV, figs. 6 and 7; PI. VIII, fig. 23; PL XIII fig. 8 (larva); PL XV, fig. 16 (larval head); 
PL XVI, fig. 20, and PL XVII, fig. 8 (segments); PL XX, figs. 27 and 28 (claspers). 

Catocala unijuga Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1194. Kellicott, 1881, Can. Ent., XIII, p. 38. Barnes and 

McDtjnnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 164. 
Catocala beaniana Grote, 1878, Can. Ent., X, p. 195; 1883, 111. Ess. Noct. North Amer., 67, PL iv, fig. 42. 
Catocala lucilla Worthington, 1883, Papilio, III, p. 39. 

Catocala unijuga var. fletcheri Beutenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 509. 
Catocala unijuga var. agatha Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 936. 
Catocala helena Cassino (nee Eversmann), 1917, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 61, PL iv. 
Catocala patricia Cassino, 1917, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 104. 

This species is larger than briseis and entirely lacks the brown band following the t. p. line; the whitish area before the 
reniform and the practical lack of the vertical ribbing are characteristic. Plate IV, figure 6, represents the typical form. 
A dark, suffused form has been named agatha by Beutenmuller and figure 7 is that of the unique type specimen; we have a 
somewhat similar specimen from Cartwright, Manitoba, and two others with almost unicolorous blackish primaries from 
the vicinity of Provo, Utah. On plate VIII, figure 23, is figured a specimen which Beutenmuller has labelled beaniana 
Grote. We have never been able satisfactorily to place this form; several years ago we saw the unique type from northern 
Illinois in the British Museum and noted that it was a worn specimen but seemed to be unijuga with the basal area shaded 
with blackish; this agrees with Beutenmuller's figure, but, until more and fresher specimens come to hand, we regard the 
position as doubtful. An aberration in which the red of the hind wings has become suffused with black is fletcheri Beuten- 
muller, the type being figured on plate I, figure 19. We cannot separate lucilla Worthington, of which the type series is 
in the Barnes Collection, from unijuga, in spite of Worthington's attempt to point out distinctions. 

Patricia Cassino (helena Cassino nee Eversman) has recently been described as a good species from Vineyard, Utah, 
but, as far as we can judge by the half-tone figure, is merely another form of unijuga, possibly representing a Rocky Moun- 
tain race. 

The distinctive features of the larva, as compared with briseis and its allies, have already been pointed out by us in 
our account of the life-history. 

The species is very common throughout Canada, extending from Quebec and Ontario westward through Manitoba 
into the Northwest Provinces (Saskatchewan and Alberta). In the United States its area of distribution is rather more 
extended towards the south than that of the preceding species, as it has been reported from Pennsylvania and various states 
north of the Ohio River and also from the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri (1914, Ent. News, XXV, p. 59). In the Rocky 
Mountain region it has been rarely taken, the only specimens known to us being the two aforementioned ones from 
Provo, LTtah, in the Barnes Collection and the female type of patricia Cassino. 

Catocala semirelicta Grote 
Plate IV, fig. 2; PL XIV, fig. 9 (larva); PL XV, fig. 19 (larval head); PL XVI, fig. 16, and PL XVII, fig. 9 (segments). 

Catocala semirelicta Grote, 1874, 6th Ann. Rep. Peab. Acad. Sci., p. 35. Barnes and McDtjnnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., XXXVIII, p. 166. 

In the type, which we have examined, and in the majority of the specimens before us there is a distinct broad dark 
shade from the base of the wing along the submedian fold to near the anal angle; as in pur a, however, certain specimens 
lack this dash and are more suffused with gray, making them difficult to separate from unijuga and still more so from 



28 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

certain forms of pura. Generally speaking, the more unicolorous forms are distinguished from unijuga by the greater 
prominence of the black costal spot enclosing the reniform. 

It is probable that this species is the eastern representative of the Rocky Mountain pura; the larva? are very similar 
although there are sufficient small differences present to make it advisable to regard the two forms as specifically distinct. 

As the species has not generally been recognized, the range of distribution has not been thoroughly worked out. We 
have a single specimen labelled "Maine"; Winn records it in his Quebec List and we have a good series from northern 
Ontario. It has been listed from Manitoba (1913, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont., XXXVI, p. 121) but such specimens may possibly 
belong to pura. 

Catocala pura Hulst 

Plate IV, fig. 1; PL XI, fig. 14, PL XIV, fig. 3 (larva); PL XV, fig. 13 (larval head); PL XV, fig. 35, and PL XVI, 

fig. 5 (segments); PL XX, figs. 29 and 30 (claspers). 

Catocala pura Hulst, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, II, p. 96. Barnes and McDunnough, 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 196 (larva). 
Catocala pura var. nigra Eastman, 1916, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 2. 

This species is very variable in the maculation of the primaries; the typical form is that figured on plate IV, figure 1; 
specimens are frequently found with the black basal dash extended through the entire submedian fold; other specimens 
show a maculation very similar to that of semirelida (Fig. 2), culminating in the form nigra Eastman in which the primaries 
are strongly suffused with black, with the t. a. and t. p. lines edged broadly with white. This latter form is very easily 
confused with hermia but can generally be separated by the fact that the thorax shows distinct black lines on the patagia 
in the pura forms, while in hermia forms it is almost unicolorous gray. 

The species is common throughout Colorado and Utah, extending southward into New Mexico (Las Vegas and Fort 
Wingate) and Arizona (White Mountains). It has been reported from Cartwright, Manitoba (1908, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont., 
XXXVIII, p. 122) but this needs further confirmation; among the Catocalas sent us for identification from the Heath 
Collection there were no specimens of pura; Dod (1916, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont., XLVI, p. 202) records the species from 
Alberta, mentioning that it is probably synonymous with semirelida Grote; we have seen no specimens from this region 
but in view of the close similarity of the two species it will be interesting to determine by breeding to which form the larvae 
belong. 

Catocala nevadensis Beutenmuller 
Plate V, figs. 3 and 4; PL XX, figs. 31 and 32 (claspers). 

Catocala nevadensis Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 935. Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 167. 
Catocala nevadensis var. montana Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 935. 

This species is very closely related to pura and probably is merely the western race of this species. Its range of 
variation is similar to that of pura, as may be seen by the illustrations (PI. V, figs. 3 and 4), specimens often occurring of 
a still more even gray color than that of the form montana (Fig. 4) . 

The larva is very similar to that of pura but the few specimens we succeeded in bringing to maturity were not quite 
identical. We regret we are unable to give a figure of the larva, as our experiments were successful too late to permit of 
a colored drawing being made. 

As far as we know, the species extends from central California through the Sierras and Cascade Mountains to British 
Columbia, the species listed as augusta in the 1906 British Columbian List being probably this form. Further details as 
to its distribution, especially notes as to what form is found in the northern Rocky Mountain States, is greatly to be 
desired. 

Catocala julietta French 

Catocala julietta French, 1916, Can. Ent., XLVIII, p. 72. 

We know nothing of this recently described species; we have repeatedly endeavored to obtain either a photograph 
or a drawing of it but regret to state that our letters to Prof. French on the subject have been entirely ignored. The 
author places it near jundura (walshi) on the strength of the gray tone of the primaries and of the color of the secondaries, 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 29 

but we doubt this association as the species appears to possess a prominent black streak through the submedian fold and 
we have never seen any specimen in the junctura group with this characteristic. Regarding this feature, French's phrase- 
ology is peculiar, as he states " a heavy shade below submedian vein, continued outside the reniform to subcostal vein, 
reminding one of the markings of C. pura." We are in doubt as to just what is meant by the terms "submedian" and 
"subcostal" as used here; with the ordinary interpretation of these terms the phrase becomes meaningless. The species 
was described from a single male captured near Carbondale, Illinois. 

Catocala texanse French 

Plate V, fig. 10; j PL XX, figs. 33 and 34 (claspers). 
Catocala texance French, 1902, Can. Ent., XXXIV, p. 98. 

With this species, we reach a group of closely allied forms which may be termed the junctura group. They are still 
very imperfectly understood, as nothing is as yet known concerning the life-histories. Their distribution is decidedly 
southern. The present species is the largest of the group and is confined, as far as we know, to central Texas (Black 
Jack Springs). . It may be merely a race of the following species, rather larger and with a dull mossy green appearance to 
the primaries. 

Catocala junctura Walker 

Plate VIII, figs. 6 and 7; PI. XX, figs. 35 and 36 (claspers). 

Catocala junctura Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1196. 
Catocala walshii Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 509. 

The typical form is that figured on plate VIII, figure 6. What Beutenmuller calls a 'variety' of this species is shown 
in figure 7 but we personally have never seen so contrasted a specimen, although certain females before us tend in this 
direction. 

The species is fairly common in southern Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas and extends westward through Kansas 
to the Colorado foot-hills (Denver). It probably will also be found in various states east of the Mississippi. Worthing- 
ton's record from northern Illinois (Papilio, III, p. 40) is doubtful and needs verification; he may have misidentified the 
species. Snow's record from Las Vegas, New Mexico, should probably be transferred to arizonce Grote. 

Catocala arizonge Grote 

Plate IV, fig. 20; PL V, figs. 6-9; PL XX, figs. '37 and 38 (claspers); PL XXI, figs. 31 and 32 (tibiae). 

Catocala arizonce Grote, 1873, Can. Ent., V, p. 163. Beutenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 506. 
Catocala babayaga Strecker, 1884, Papilio, IV, p. 73. 

The typical form of the species (PI. V, fig. 6) is rather more clearly marked than junctura but specimens occur which 
are very difficult to separate from this species. The form with pinkish suffusion on the primaries is babayaga Strecker 
and is well depicted in figures 8 and 9. 

Figure 20 on plate IV was listed by Beutenmuller as Jessica Hy. Edwards; it was taken from a specimen in our col- 
lection labelled "New Mexico, Snow" and we believe is merely a dwarf specimen of this species approaching junctura 
in the confused maculation of primaries. 

As far as is known, the species is confined to Arizona and the adjoining areas of New Mexico. Until its life-history 
is- known, it is impossible to determine whether it is specifically distinct from junctura and texance. 

Catocala Jessica Hy. Edwards 
Plate VIII, fig. 12. 
Catocala Jessica Hy. Edwards, 1877, Pacific Coast Lep., No. 23, p. 1. 

We have carefully examined the type of this species from Havilah, Kern County, California, and believe that it is 
a dwarfed specimen of what is probably a mere race of arizona; we have matched it exactly with a small series in our 



30 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

collection from the San Bernardino Mountains; the normal size is that of arizonce. As nothing is known of the life- 
history, we leave it for the present as a species. It is only known from southern California. 

Catocala electilis Walker 
Plate VIII, fig. 24; PI. XXI, figs. 1 and 2 (claspers). 

Catocala electilis Walkee, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1209. Druce, 1880, Biol. Cent. Am. Lep. Het., I, p. 360, PL xxxi 

fig. 8. Beutenmuller, 1897, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., IX, p. 211. 
Catocala cassandra Hy. Edwards, 1875, Pacific Coast Lep., XIV, p. 7. 

The species has been generally confused with junctura and arizonce but the excellent figure given should render it 
easily recognizable. Both electilis and cassandra are based on Mexican material but the species extends into southern 
Arizona; Beutenmuller records it from the Tonto Basin and we have a single specimen from the Huachuca Mountains 
which we are inclined to refer here. 

Catocala hippolyta Strecker 

Plate IV, fig. 3; PI. XXI, figs. 5 and 6 (claspers). 
Catocala hippolyta Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 99. Hy. Edwards, 1875, Pacific Coast Lep., XIV, p. 4. 

A very distinct species with its pale gray primaries and narrow black band on secondaries. 

The early stages are unknown. 

The species is only known from the Coast Range of California extending from Sonoma County to Los Angeles County. 

Catocala stretchi Behr 

Plate IV, figs. 4, 5, 14, 15, 18, and 19; PI. XXI, figs. 7 and 8 (claspers). 

Catocala stretchii Behr, 1870, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, III, p. 24. French, 1892, Can. Ent., XXIV, p. 229 (larva). 

Catocala portia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, II, p. 94. 

Catocala stretchii var. sierra? Beutenmuller, 1897, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., IX, p. 212. 

We have been obliged to differ from Mr. Beutenmuller in our conception of this species, the manuscript before us 
having placed sierrce as a variety of aspasia and made portia a good variety of stretchi. 

Stretchi was described from Virginia City, Nevada; portia, from Lake Tahoe, California, and sierrce, from the same 
locality; all three type localities being, therefore, practically identical. The type of stretchi being lost, there only remains 
a specimen in the Hy. Edwards collection marked " true to type"; this, however, is from Havilah, Kern County, in south- 
ern California, a locality vastly removed from the type locality of stretchi. We have carefully examined this specimen, 
as well as the type of portia, comparing them with a long and variable series of what we consider stretchi from Truckee, 
California. We can match very closely the " true to type" specimen with specimens from Truckee (PL IV, figs. 14 and 15), 
but further material from the same general locality as this Havilah specimen (San Bernardino County) shows distinctly 
that the southern form (PL IV, fig. 4) is decidedly more heavily marked, as a general rule, and more variegated than the 
Sierra Nevada form. As regards portia, the type is worn and faded but is apparently only a specimen showing rather 
less maculation on primaries than usual; there is nothing in our opinion to warrant the retention of the name which, in 
view of the facts that we can match the "true to type" and the "type" specimens with specimens in our Truckee series 
and that the type localities are practically identical, should sink as a synonym of stretchi. In our series of the form 
sierrce Beutenmuller (Fig. 18) there are specimens which can scarcely be distinguished from sara French. In all proba- 
bility the Rocky Mountain species which at present goes under the name of aspasia, with sara as a variety, will prove 
to be merely a race of stretchi. Figure 5 of plate IV is listed by Beutenmuller as a variety of stretchi and figure 19 as a 
pink form of portia; we leave them doubtfully under this species as, without a knowledge of the specimens and their 
locality, absolute identification is impossible. 

The larval description given by French probably applies to the southern form, as the ova came from Colton, San 
Bernardino County, and certainly points to a close relationship between stretchi and aspasia when compared with our 
own description of the larva of this latter species. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 31 

The species extends through the Sierra Nevada Mountains southward to the San Bernardino Mountains. Records 
of this species from Colorado should be transferred, we believe, to astasia. 

Catocala aspasia Strecker 

Plate IV, figs. 16 and 17; PL V, fig. 5; PL XIV, fig. 7 (larva); PL XV, fig. 12 (larval head); PL XV, 
fig. 37, and PL XVI, fig. 9 (segments); PL XXI, figs. 3 and 4 (claspers). 

Catocala aspasia Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 94. Betttenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 505. Barnes 

and McDtjnnotjgh, 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 198 (larva). 
Catocala augusta Hy. Edwards, 1875, Pacific Coast Lepid., XV, p. 1. 
Catocala sara French, 1883, Can. Ent., XV, p. 163. 

It is impossible to determine authentically the species Strecker described as aspasia; his original description is use- 
less for purposes of identification, the species being compared in a general way with amatrix; the type locality is given as 
Lower California, which may merely mean southern California or, if correct, would then refer to the Mexican peninsula. 
In his list of types Strecker lists three specimens from California as the types of aspasia, but these specimens do not exist 
in the Strecker Collection; under aspasia are seven specimens labelled "Manitou, Colo." and a single specimen, nowise 
different, merely labelled aspasia; none of these, therefore, can be considered as the original types, concerning the where- 
abouts of which we are entirely ignorant. 

We apply the name to the species represented by these Colorado specimens, following Reutenmiiller; the typical 
form would then be that figured on plate V, figure 5, the variation in the color of primaries ranging from pale gray and 
ochreous to pinkish. A form found in San Diego County, California, and adjacent counties, which may possibly be a 
good species or a race of stretcJii or even the true aspasia, has been named augusta by Hy. Edwards; it is characterized 
by heavy maculation, the specimens before us, however, showing less black suffusion on the primaries than in Beuten- 
muller's figure (PL IV, fig. 16). Sara French (Fig. 17), of which a cotype still exists in the Strecker Collection, is a form 
of aspasia with strong blackish suffusion on the primaries, at times covering a greater portion of the wing; it corresponds 
to the form sierra? of stretchi and is generally rather rare. 

The species appears to be common in the central Rocky Mountain States, occurring late in the season; it extends 
into Arizona and New Mexico. It has been recorded (Can. Ent., XXXII, p. 95) from Cartwright, Manitoba, where it 
is very rare. The record of augusta from Kaslo, British Columbia, (Dyar, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXVII, p. 878) is doubt- 
ful; it may refer to nevadensis Beutenmuller and needs verification; augusta, as far as we know, is strictly limited to 
southern California. 

Group XI 

(Lamprosia Hubner) 

Egg hemispherical, ribbed, the secondary branches arising very regularly from the equatorial zone of the egg. Larva 
with lateral filaments and a transverse dorsal wart on the fifth abdominal segment. Male claspers symmetrical, the apex 
being rounded. 

The peculiar ribbing on the egg and the symmetrical nature of the male claspers easily separate this group from the 
preceding. The larvae are willow-feeders and normally have five molts, although concumbens with four shows affinity 
to the preceding group. 

Catocala cara Guenee 

Plate III, figs. 9 and 10; PI. X, fig. 38 (larval head); PL XI, figs. 1 and 2 (larva); PI. XXI, fig. 9 (clasper). 

Catocala cara Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep.,, VII, p. 87. French, 1882, Papilio, II, p. 167 (larva). 
Catocala cara var. carissima Hulst, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, II, p. 97. 
Catocala cara var. silvia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 57. 

This well-known species needs no further comment on our part. 

The species extends over the whole eastern half of the United States reaching northward into southern Ontario and 
Maine, where it is rarely met with; it has also been recorded from South Dakota (Ent. News, VIII, p. 28). In the south- 
ern portion of its range (Texas to Florida) it forms the race carissima Hulst {syhia Hy. Edwards), characterized by the 
large size and yellowish costal blotches. 



32 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

Catocala concumbens Walker 

Plate III, fig. 15; PI. XI, fig. 5 (larva); PI. XXI, fig. 11 (clasper). 

Catocala concumbens Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1198. Barnes and McDunnough, 1918 Bull Amer Mi 

Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 168. ' ' ' 

Catocala concumbens var. diana Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 57. 
Catocala concumbens ab. hillii Grote, 1883, Papilio, III, p. 43. 

The figure gives an excellent idea of this species; diana is an aberration with pink suffusion on the abdomen dorsally 
and hilli a color form in which the secondaries are yellow; this latter variety may have been produced artificially, although 
its occurrence is possible. 

This common species is much more northern in its range than cara, its southern boundary being, roughly speaking, 
the Ohio Valley region; in the north it extends through Quebec and Ontario into Manitoba and has been reported by 
Mr. Arthur Gibson from as far north as Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory. We know of no authentic records from the Rocky 
Mountain region or the Pacific Coast. 

Catocala amatrix (Hiibner) 

Plate III, figs. 11-13; PL X, fig. 36 (larval head); PL XI, fig. 3 (larva); PL XXI, fig. 10 (clasper). 

Lamprosia amatrix Hubner, 1818?, Samml. Eur. Schmett., Fig. 487; 1820, Samml. Exot. Schmett., II. 

Catocala amatrix French, 1884, Papilio, IV, p. 8 (larva). 

Catocala nurus Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1195. 

Catocala selecta Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1197. 

Catocala editha Edwards, 1874, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, V, p. 112. 

The typical form, as far as can be judged by Hiibner's figure, is the one with dark streaks from the base to below 
.the apex of the wing, as represented in plate III, figure 11; nurus Walker is a synonym. The pale form without dark 
shades has been named selecta by Walker and is figured on plate III, figure 12. Both forms are equally common. 

The Rocky Mountain form, to judge by five specimens before us, has the primaries much paler in color than in the 
eastern and southern specimens and apparently represents a good geographical race to which we imagine the name editha 
must be applied, the type of this species being from Arizona. The form of editha corresponding to selecta Walker has been 
named pallida Poling and the type from Denver, Colorado, is before us, but this name, although included in Smith's Check 
List, has not to our knowledge ever been published; the form is figured on plate III, figure 13. 

The species is common and wide-spread, occurring throughout practically the whole of the United States, east of the 
Rocky Mountains, and extending north into Quebec, Ontario, and South Dakota. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado 
and Arizona the race editha seems rare; we have a few specimens from the vicinity of Denver. 

Group XII 
Male claspers more rounded apically and less asymmetrical than in Group X. Early stages practically unknown. 

Of the species included in this group, the life-history of only desdemona is known to us; we are, therefore, unable to 
define the group definitely and we place them provisionally together on account of general similarity of maculation in 
the adults, combined with close resemblance in the male claspers. The larva? will probably all feed on oak, as is the case 
with desdemona. 

Catocala delilah Strecker 

Plate VI, figs. 13 and 14; PI. XIV, fig. 2 (larva); PI. XV, fig. 18 (larval head); PI. XV, fig. 28, and 
PI. XVI, fig. 2 (segments); PI. XXI, figs. 12 and 13 (claspers). 

Catocala delilah Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., Nov., p. 96, PI. xi, fig. 7. 

Catocala adoptiva Grote, 1874, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, V, Dec, p. 96. 

Catocala calphurnia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 59. Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

XXIII, p. 149. 
Catocala desdemona Hy. Edwards, 1882, Papilio, II, p. 15. Barnes and McDunnough, 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 195 (larva). 

The typical form from Texas (PL VI, fig. 13) has considerable brown suffusion over the primaries; we have not seen 
a long enough series to determine whether or not this feature is constant. In Arizona and Utah we meet with a race, 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 33 

desdemona, which is generally paler in the coloration of both wings (Fig. 14) but which occasionally, in the female, shows 
a similar brown suffusion to that of the Texan form. We know nothing regarding calphurnia Hy. Edwards, described 
from a single specimen in the Bailey Collection ostensibly from Kansas; according to Beutenmuller, the species may be 
either European or an aberration of delilah; we leave it as the latter for the present. The larva of desdemona has been 
bred by us; it remains to be seen if the larva of the type form shows any distinctive features. 

The species is southern and southwestern in its distribution; it occurs in central Texas and apparently extends up 
the Mississippi Valley as far as southern Illinois, as French (Can. Ent., XVIII, p. 161) records the capture of two speci- 
mens in the vicinity of Carbondale. Snow records it as rare at Lawrence, Kansas (Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci., IV, p. 51). 
The race, desdemona, as already stated, occurs in Arizona and Utah and probably will be found in New Mexico and 
adjoining states. 

Catocala andromache Hy. Edwards 

Plate IX, fig. 35; PL XXI, figs. 14 and 15 (claspers). 
Catocala andromache Hy. Edwards, 1885, Ent. Amer., I, p. 50. 

This small species resembles a miniature desdemona. Nothing is known of the early stages. It is entirely confined 
to the arid regions of the Southwest, occurring fairly plentifully at considerable elevations in Arizona and southeastern 
California and presumably extending into Mexico. 

Catocala frederici Grote 

Plate VII, fig. 12; PI. XXI, figs. 16 and 17 (claspers). 
Catocala frederici Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 14. 

This rare species is readily distinguishable from its allies by the pale gray color of the primaries. 
It is found in central Texas and has been recorded by Snow from Kansas and northern New Mexico. This latter 
record needs verification; it may refer to andromache, which was undescribed at the time. 

Catocala chelidonia Grote 

Plate X, fig. 9; PI. XXI, figs. 18 and 19 (claspers). 
Catocala chelidonia Grote, 1881, Papilio, I, p. 159; 1882, 111. Ess. Noct. North Amer., p. 67, PI. iv, fig. 41. 

The dark blackish color of the primaries is quite characteristic of the species. 

The early stages are unknown. Packard (5th Rep. Ent. Com., p. 175) records the food-plant of the larva as scrub 
oak, according to Mr. J. Doll. 

The species has only been recorded from the mountain ranges of Arizona, where it may be taken in the daytime by 
beating the bushes and at night at the flowers of the mescal. 



Group XIII 

Egg hemispherical, vertically ribbed. Larva smooth, without dorsal warts or lateral filaments. Male claspers 
symmetrical. 

The early stages of the species included in this group are too little known to allow of the grouping being anything but 
tentative. Considerable difference occurs between the ova of illecta and abbrematella, the only two species whose egg 
stage has been noted. The larvse are apparently of a rather primitive type and are feeders on various papilionaceous 
trees (Gleditschia, Robinia, etc.). The adult illecta differs from its allies in possessing four rows of spines on the tarsi and 
may eventually be found to belong in a section by itself. 



34 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 



Catocala illecta Walker 



Plate VII, fig. 13; PI. X, fig. 30 (larval head); PI. XII, fig. 10 (larva); PL XXI, fig. 26 (tibia); 

PI. XXII, figs. 1 and 2 (claspers). 

Catocala illecta Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1205. French, 1892, Can. Ent., XXIV, p. 307 (larva). Rowley 

Ent. News, XX, pp. 129-131 (larva). Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 169. 
Catocala magdalena Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 93, PL xi, fig. 9. 

This species somewhat resembles a concumbens with yellow secondaries, the pale gray-brown of the primaries being 
quite characteristic. The larvae and its habits are well known and have been excellently noted by Rowley. The moth 
is seldom found on trees or at sugar, apparently concealing itself among low-growing bushes. 

The species is fairly common in the central Plain States, extending south to Texas. It has been reported from south- 
western Ontario (Moffat, Can. Ent., XXX, 140). 

Catocala abbreviatella Grote 

Plate X, fig. 18; PL XXII, fig. 3 (clasper). 

Catocala abbreviatella Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 14. Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer Mus Nat Hist 
XXXVIII, p. 169. " 

The pale-centered reniform separates this species from nwptialis, in which this spot is prominently black. On the 
secondaries the terminal black band is broken near the anal angle, leaving a dark isolated spot. 

The species is rarely met with and appears to inhabit a belt of territory in the central Plain States stretching from 
Texas in the south and following roughly the Mississippi Valley to southern Manitoba (1904, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont, XXXIV, 
p. 94). Rowley reports a single specimen at Louisiana, Missouri (Ent. News, XXI, p. 453); French records it in his 
'Catocala of Illinois'; and Dodge (Can. Ent, XXXIV, p. 117) mentions the capture of a few species each year in 
Missouri and eastern Nebraska. 

Catocala nuptialis Walker 

Plate X, fig. 19; PL XXII, fig. 4 (clasper). 

Catocala nuptialis Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1206. 
Catocala myrrha Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 97, PL xi, fig. 12. 

We have already noted the points of distinction between this species and the preceding. 

It is commoner than abbreviatella, occurring through practically the same territory; Lintner's (1896, 11th Rep. Inj. 
Ins. New York, p. 266) record from New York, with food-plant of the larva given as apple, needs confirmation. 

Catocala whitneyi Dodge 
Plate X, figs. 16 and 17; PL XXII, fig. 5 (clasper). 
Catocala whitneyi Dodge, 1874, Can. Ent, VI, p. 125. Betjtenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 146. 

This species occurs in two forms, as shown in the figures. It is easily recognized by the heavy black t. a. line and the 
broad reniform irregularly produced toward the base of wing. 

It has only been reported from a few of the Plains States from Nebraska and Kansas northward to southern Mani- 
toba but appears to be fairly plentiful locally. 

Catocala amestris Strecker 

Plate VIII, figs. 17 and 18; PL X, fig. 33 (larval head); PL XII, fig. 7 (larva); PL XXII, fig. 6 (clasper). 

Catocala amestris Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het, Nov, p. 96, PL xi, fig. 6. Betjtenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, 

xix, p. 508 (larva). 
Catocala anna Grote, 1874, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, V, Dec, p. 96. 
Catocala westcottii Grote, 1878, Can. Ent, X, p. 195. 

This species is rare. The form westcotti (Fig. 18) is said to differ from the type form (Fig. 17) in having the outer 
black margin of secondaries unbroken. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 35 

The type of the species came from Texas; we have a few specimens before us from this state, all of which show the 
unbroken band and would therefore fall under the term westcotti which was described from material from Illinois and 
Wisconsin. We have not examined these types and have no material from this region so cannot say if Beutenmuller's 
conception is correct or not; we presume that it is, as Grote himself regarded westcotti as a mere form of amestris. Apart 
from the type localities, we have a single specimen from Nebraska and Snow has recorded the species from Kansas; 
Beutenmuller secured the larva? on Robinia in the Black Mountains, North Carolina, one of these specimens serving for 
the figure given on plate XII, figure 7. Apparently the species has a wide range throughout the Eastern States, although 
on account of its rarity it has seldom been recorded. 

Group XIV 

{Andrew sia Grote) 

Early stages unknown. Male claspers slightly asymmetrical; apex of left clasper projecting slightly beyond the 
thinly chitinized ventral area. 

Messalina, the only species in the group, has usually been placed close to arnica on account of the lack of a median 
dark band on the secondaries; a study of the male claspers, however, shows that its affinities are rather with the illecta 
group than with arnica; the early stages will probably shed light on the correct position. Hampson separates the genus 
Andrewsia on the dorsal tufting of the abdomen, which he states is lacking in messalina; we can, however, see no appreci- 
able difference between this species and some of the smaller species of the illecta group. In fact, if a well-marked speci- 
men of messalina and a pale specimen of abbrematella be compared, it can readily be seen how a further reduction in the 
maculation of the primaries of the latter species and an elimination of the median band of the secondaries would produce 
messalina; we might even venture to predict that the larva of messalina will be without lateral filaments. 

Catocala messalina Guenee 

Plate X, fig. 20; PI. XXII, figs. 34 and 35 (claspers). 

Catocala messalina Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 107. 
Catocala belfragiana Harvey, 1875, Bull. Buffalo So c. Nat. Sci., II, p. 281. 
Catocala jocasta Strecker, 1875, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 107. 

The illustration is ample to identify this striking and aberrant form. It is decidedly rare, apparently being most 
common in Texas; it occurs, however, in Kansas and a single specimen has been reported (Ent. News, X, p. 283) from 
Montgomery County, Virginia, so that its range will probably be similar to that of the preceding group of species. 

Group XV 
Early stages unknown. Male claspers symmetrical, rounded apically. 

The two species included here, gracilis and andromedee (tristis), are apparently related, to judge by a comparison of 
the claspers, but a knowledge of the early stages will be necessary to definitely place the species. 

Catocala gracilis Edwards 
Plate IX, figs. 7-9; PI. XXII, fig. 7 (clasper). 

Catocala gracilis Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 511. 

Catocala similis Grote (nee Edwards), 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 17. 

Catocala gracilis var. sordida Grote, 1877, Can. Ent., IX, p. 170. 

Catocala proeclara Holland (nee Grote and Robinson), 1903, Moth Book, p. 269, PI. xxxv, fig. 7. 

This small species shows considerable variability in the coloration of the primaries. The typical form (PI. IX, fig. 7) 
has a broad brownish streak along the inner margin; pale forms occur without this streak and again other specimens in 
which the whole wing is suffused with dark shades, this latter being the form sordida Grote. A study of the figures will 



36 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 



readily show the points of distinction from similis Edwards and prcoclara Grote and Robinson, with which species several 
authors have confused it. 

The species is not rare along the Atlantic Coast; it has been reported from as far north as the vicinity of Ottawa 
Ontario, (Gibson, Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1912, p. 121) and extends southward, according to Beutenmuller, into Florida- 
westward it ranges into Pennsylvania and Ohio and has been included by French in his synopsis of the Catocalse of 
Illinois. 

Catocala andromedse (Guenee) 

Plate I, fig. 18; PL XXII, fig. 8 (clasper). 

Hypogram?na andromedce Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 36. 
Catocala tristis Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 511. 

This species has been generally known as tristis Edwards but Sir Geo. Hampsoil has recently called our attention to 
the fact that GueneVs description of andromedos (a name heretofore unplaced) fits this species very well; we concur with 
him in using GueneVs name, which has priority. 

The similarity of this species with the preceding in general type of maculation of primaries as well as in structural 
characters leads us to believe that the two are correctly associated, although the early stages of both are unknown. 

The range of the species is practically the same as that of gracilis, although it is distinctly rarer. It appears to extend 
farther down the Mississippi Valley than gracilis, as we have a single specimen in our collection labelled St. Louis, Missouri, 
and several specimens from Harris County, Texas; concerning the authenticity of these labels, however, we know nothing. 

Group XVI 

Egg hemispherical, prominently ribbed. Larva with lateral filaments and a dorsal wart on the fifth abdominal segment, 
which usually is very prominent, pointed backward, and conical. Male claspers symmetrical, apically strongly rounded. 

The larva? of all the species are not known but are probably all oak-feeders; in at least one species (ophclia) the 
dorsal wart is considerably reduced in size. The spining of the hind tibiae is reduced to one or two spines between the 
spurs, which in some specimens are entirely absent. 

Catocala herodias Strecker 
Plate VIII, fig. 10. 

Catocala herodias Strecker, 1876, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 121. Beutenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 506; 1913, 
Insec. Ins. Menst., I, p. 97. 

This rare species was for a long time only represented by the unique type specimen from Texas; of late years it has 
been bred from larvse found on oak trees at Lakehurst, New Jersey, proving its validity to specific rank. Nothing, as 
far as we know, has, however, been published concerning the larva nor have collectors made any attempts to secure the 
full life-history of the species. 

Apart from these two widely separated localities we know of no other authentic records for the species; judging, 
however, from the nature of the insect fauna of Lakehurst, we venture the prediction that the species will be found to 
occur generally in the pine barrens of the Southern States. 

Catocala coccinata Grote 

Plate III, figs. 16-18; PI. XIV, fig. 1 (larva); PI. XV, fig. 20 (larval head); PI. XV, fig. 33, and 
PL XVII, fig. 11 (segments); PL XXII, fig. 9 (clasper). 

Catocala coccinata Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 6. Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

XXXVIII, p. 170. 
Catocala coccinata var. circe Strecker, 1876, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 121. 
Catocala sinuosa Grote, 1879, Can. Ent., XI, p. 15. 
Catocala coccinata var. chiquita Bartsch, 1916, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 3. 

The typical form of this species with rather even gray primaries is figured on plate III, figure 16; the type material 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 37 

was from Pennsylvania. Strecker applied the name circe to specimens from Texas which were more suffused with brown 
and possessed a broad diffuse basal dash; we have not seen enough Texan material to judge as to the possibility of this 
being a geographical race; the name is generally applied to northern specimens which occur with the typical form and 
show the same characteristics (Fig. 17) ; such specimens are especially common among females. An aberration with the 
dorsal portion of the abdomen suffused with pink has been named chiquita by Bartsch. Sinuosa Grote (Fig. 18) is at 
least a good geographical race, if not a separate species; it is characterized by the narrow central black band on the sec- 
ondaries and occurs in Florida and probably other Gulf States. 

The species is wide-spread, extending in one form or another over the greater portion of the eastern half of the 
United States. In the north it is reported from Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec. 

Catocala verrilliana Grote 

Plate VIII, figs. 15 and 16; PL X, figs. 14 and 15; PL XIV, fig. 10 (larva); PL XV, fig. 27 (larval head) ; PL XV, fig. 40, 

and PL XVI, fig. 7 (larval segments); PL XXII, fig. 10 (clasper). 

Catocala verrilliana Grote, 1875, Can. Ent., VII, p. 185. Harvey, 1875, Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. ScL, III, p. 12. 

Catocala verrilliana var. votiva Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 41. 

Catocala werneri Biederman, 1909, Ent. News, XX, p. 76. Barnes and McDunnough, 1911, Ent. News, XXII, p. 180; 1912, Cont. 

Nat. Hist. North Amer. Lep., I., No. 4, p. 23, PL x, fig. 1. 
Catocala beutenmuelleri Barnes and McDunnough, 1910, Can. Ent., XLII, p. 25.1; 1912, Cont. Nat. Hist. North Amer. Lep., I, No. 4, 

pp. 23, PL x, fig. 6; 1913, Psyche, XX, p. 193 (larva). 

This species is variable in the coloration of the primaries; the typical form from Texas has a distinct brownish tinge, 
even more apparent than in the figure (PI. X, fig. 14) ; an aberration of this with yellow secondaries is votiva Hulst (Fig. 
15). Holland's figure under this name (PI. xxxiv, fig. 16) is incorrect and should be referred to ophelia. Werneri Bieder- 
man, of which the unique female type is before us, is seemingly either an aberration of this species or of violenta with a 
diffuse brown shade over a large portion of the wing; the size and color of the secondaries point to verrilliana while the 
dentate nature of the t. p. line above the fold is more as in violenta; the figure on plate VIII, figure 16 is not accurate, our 
own photograph giving a better idea of the maculation; until more material is available we place it with verrilliana. In 
Utah and on the Pacific Coast we meet with the race beutenmuelleri (PI. VIII, fig. 15), characterized by the bluish gray 
tinge of the primaries and the less prominent 'dark basal dash. The larval history of this latter form has been described 
by us and the figures given are based on Utah material; we presume that when the larva of the typical form is known it 
will prove to be identical. 

The species is quite common in the Southwestern States, the type form being recorded from Colorado, Texas, New 
Mexico, and Arizona; beutenmuelleri is typical in Utah but a very closely allied form, hardly worthy of varietal rank, is 
found along the Pacific Coast from southern California to Salem, Oregon. 

Catocala violenta Hy. Edwards 

Plate III, figs. 3 and 4; PL XXII, fig. 11. 

Catocala violenta Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 58. Betjtenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 

p. 507; 1907, idem., XXIII, p. 147. 
Catocala chiricahua Poling, 1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, p. 127. 

This species is larger than verrilliana and has more brilliantly colored secondaries, the orange tinge of verrilliana being 
replaced by bright carmine; the t. p. line is also considerably more dentate. The female (PI. Ill, fig. 4), which is more 
contrastingly marked than the male, has been described by Poling as chiricahua, the type being in the Barnes Collection. 

The early stages are unknown and the species has been recorded only from southern Colorado (type locality), New 
Mexico (Snow, Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci., VIII, p. 38), and Arizona; in this latter state it is fairly plentiful in the moun- 
tain canyons. 



38 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 



Catocala ophelia Hy. Edwards 



Plate VIII, figs. 13 and 14; PI. XIV, fig. 8 (larva); PL XV, fig. 26 (larval head); PI. XV, fig. 34, 
and PL XVI, fig. 8 (segments); PL XXII, fig. 12 (claspers). 

Catocala ophelia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, II, p. 95. Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. XXIII 

p. 939. Barnes and McDunnough, 1913, Psyche, II, p. 194 (larva). 
Catocala verrilliana Holland (nee Grote), 1903, Moth Book, p. 265, PL xxxiv, fig. 16. 
Catocala ophelia var. dolli Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 940. 

The conformation of the t. p. line separates this species from both violenta and verrilliana. A dark form with brown- 
shaded primaries has been named dolli by Beutenmuller, the type being figured on plate VIII, figure 14. 

The larva is markedly distinct from that ol verrilliana, as may be seen by a comparison of the figures, thus establish- 
ing the validity of the species. 

The type of this species came from Mendocino County, California; we possess entirely similar specimens from Glen- 
wood Springs, Colorado, and Provo, Utah, so that the range is apparently quite extended. 



SECTION III 

Eunetis Hubner, 1823, Zutrage Exot. Schmett., II, p. 26, fig. 347 (type, ultronia Hiibner). 
Corisce Hubner, 1825, Verzeichniss, p. 278 (type, arnica Hubner). 

Fore and hind tibiae unspined; mid -tibiae spined. 

While individual specimens of the species included in the previous section may show unspined hind tibiae, an unspined 
condition of the hind tibiae is apparently the normal state of the species included in the present section; we have, at least, 
been unable to find spines on any of the numerous specimens examined. Hampson has used the generic term Ephesia 
Hubner for the section with unspined hind tibiae, relegating Eunetis Hubner (1825, Verz., p. 276) to the synonymy of Cato- 
cala Schrank with the type wrongly stated as puerpera Ochsenheimer, the first species listed under this heading in the 
'Verzeichniss.' Eunetis, however, was first used before 1823 by Hubner in the 'Zutrage/ II, p. 26, figures 347 and 348, 
for the single species ultronia, the genus being thus monotypical with ultronia as type. In this connection we might note 
that Ephesia was first used by Hubner in the ' Zutrage ' in connection with elonympha (Figs. 29 and 30) and later in the 
same work with arnica (Figs. 57 and 58), whereas in the 'Verzeichniss' new genera are established for both of these species. 
As it is fairly well established that Hubner issued the plates of the 'Zutrage' a few at a time, it is probable that the plate 
with the figure of Ephesia elonympha (PI. V) appeared prior to that containing the figure of arnica (Plate x) and that 
therefore the type of the genus Ephesia must be taken to be elonympha, the genus being monotypical. In any case, the 
type, according to our view, would have to be selected from these two species since both plates of the 'Zutrage' appeared 
long before the portion of the 'Verzeichniss' containing the genus Ephesia. 



Group XVII 

{Eunetis Hubner) 

Egg (as far as known) very flat at apex and base, circular, with faint lateral ribbing, covered with an albuminous 
cement and laid in rows in a crevice. Larva with lateral filaments and a dorsal wart on the fifth abdominal segment, 
which is usually long and pointed. Male claspers symmetrical, with a distinct chitinous dorsal rim which ends pointedly 
at the apex but does not exceed the thinly chitinized ventral area. 

The early stages of several species included in this group are unknown and their position is, therefore, tentative. 
The position of clintoni is rather doubtful, as Dodge's short description of the egg would seem to show it to be similar 
to the flat egg of the walnut-feeders; the larva, however, shows the fleshy horn in some of its earlier stages; the apex 
of the male claspers is rather more rounded than is usual. 

The larvae, as far as is known, are all feeders on Rosaceae. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 39 

Catocala miranda Hy. Edwards 

Plate VIII, fig. 22; PI. XXII, fig. 13 (clasper). 

Catocala miranda Hy. Edwards, 1881, Papilio, I, p. 118. Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 940. 

This is a rare species which generally has been wrongly associated with Judith, which it resembles somewhat in size, 
totally differing, however, in structural details. We only know the species from the type specimen in the American Mu- 
seum and the slide of the genitalia made by Beutenmuller but believe it will prove to be correctly associated with the ultronia 
group. The species has been recorded only from Washington, D. C. 

Catocala orba Kusnezov 
Plate VIII, fig. 21; PI. XXII, fig. 14 (clasper). 
Catocala orba Kusnezov, 1903, Rev. Russe Ent., Ill, p. 166, figs, la and 16. French, 1903, Can. Ent., XXXV, pp. 3, 43. 

The species is very closely allied to miranda Hy. Edwards and may prove, when more material is available, to be 
merely a race of this species; it is larger, as far as can be judged by the few available specimens, but the maculation is 
very similar. The species is known only from Texas. 

Catocala ultronia (Hubner) 

Plate VII, figs. 17-20; PL X, fig. 22, and PL XV, fig. 11 (larval head); PL XII, figs. 15 and 17 (larva); PL XXII, fig. 15 (clasper). 

Eunetis ultronia Hubner, 1823, Zutr. Exot. Schmett., p. 26, figs. 347 and 348. 

Catocala ultronia Saunders, 1874, Can. Ent., VI, p. 147 (larva). Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 147. 

Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 171. 
Catocala ultronia var. mopsa Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 58. 
Catocala ultronia var. adriana Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 57. 
Catocala ultronia var. celia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 58. 
Catocala ultronia var. lucinda Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 940. 
Catocala ultronia form nigrescens Cassino, 1917, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 79, PL vi. 

The typical form of this well-known species, as figured by Hubner, is that found on plate VII, figure 20; it has been 
redescribed by Hy. Edwards under the name mopsa. A paler form, for a long time considered to be the typical form, 
has been designated by Beutenmuller lucinda (Fig. 17); in this form the inner margin of primaries is broadly brown. A 
still paler form with more extended but less sharply defined dark shades is adriana Hy. Edwards (Fig. 19) ; there are all 
manner of intergrades between this and the preceding form. Nigrescens Cassino is an occasional aberration in which the 
entire primaries are suffused with black-brown. Celia Hy. Edwards (Fig. 18) is probably a good racial form, from Florida 
and the Southern States, in which the dark median band on the secondaries is much narrower; it shows the same range 
of variation in the coloration of the primaries as is found in the type form. 

It is quite possible that some of the so-called forms have developed into well-defined geographical races in certain 
localities, notably in the North and South. From ova laid by several females received from northern Ontario, we bred 
a long series of specimens which, without exception, were of a form resembling a very bright and contrasted lucinda; ova 
from Iowa resulted in imagines of both the type form and typical lucinda; careful breeding from various eastern and south- 
ern localities is necessary to establish the status of the various forms. 

The species is wide-spread, occurring over the whole eastern half of the United States and ranging northward into 
Quebec and Ontario. As we have the species from Hymers in northwestern Ontario, it is probable that it occurs also in 
Manitoba, although we have found no published record of this. 

Catocala cratsegi Saunders 

Plate X, figs. 4 and 5; PL X, fig. 21 (larval head); PL XII, fig. 18 (larva); PL XXII, fig. 19 (clasper). 

Catocala cratwgi Saunders, 1876, Can. Ent., VIII, p. 72. 
Catocala pretiosa Lintner, 1876, Can. Ent., VIII, p. 121. 

This species was based largely on a larval description; one of the types, however, is in the British Museum ex Grote 
Collection and is figured by Hampson (Cat. Lep. Phal., PI. cc, fig. 16), this figure agreeing with that on our plate X, figure 



40 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

5. Pretiosa Lintner seems to be a form of this species with less brown shading on the primaries along the inner margin 
It should be borne in mind that the "polygama Guenee," referred to by Lintner, Saunders, and others of the older authors 
is not the true species but probably what we have designated as blandula Hulst. The two species, blandula and cratoeai 
with its variety pretiosa, have been constantly confused; the larvae are, however, totally distinct as may be seen by a 
reference to our figure of blandula and Saunders' description of cratcegi larva, which is stated to possess a long fleshy horn 
and is much the same as, if not identical with, that of mira Grote. We have no knowledge regarding the material which 
served for the figure of the larva given here by Beutenmuller. Crat&gi is more contrastingly brown and white in the 
color of its primaries, and the t. a. and t. p. lines do not approach each other nearly so closely in the submedian fold as 
they do in blandula, where they at times actually touch. 

Owing to the manner in which the species has been misidentified, it is difficult to arrive at the correct area of dis- 
tribution of the true species. As far as we can tell, it ranges through Canada from Manitoba to Nova Scotia and is com- 
mon in the New England and northern Atlantic Coast States. We have several specimens of what seems to be a slightly 
larger form of this species labelled "Tennessee" and "Florida" but have no knowledge of their origin. Records from 
the Middle West may refer to the following species. 



Catocala mira Grote 

Plate X, figs. 2 and 3; PL XIII, fig. 12 (larva); PL XV, fig. 22 (larval head); PL XV, fig. 36, and 
PL XVI, fig. 4 (segments); PL XXII, fig. 20 (clasper). 

Catocala mira Grote, 1876, Can. Ent., VIII, p. 230; 1882, 111. Ess. Noct. North Amer., p. 70, PL iv, fig. 43. Barnes and McDunnough, 

1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 172. 
Catocala polygama Holland (nee Guenee), 1903, Moth Book, p. 268, PL xxxiv, fig. 13. 

Fresh specimens of the typical mira from the Plains States have a distinct bluish gray cast to the primaries and 
differ further from cratwgi in lacking the brown shades at base and along inner margin and the white shades in the median 
area; older specimens and those from more southern points have a tendency to become slightly brownish as in figures 
2 and 3 of plate X. Holland's figure of jacquenetta (PL xxxv, fig. 5), as well as that of polygama, should probably also 
be referred to this species. 

As we have already stated, mira may prove to be merely a form of cratwgi but, until the two can be bred side by side, 
we prefer to keep them separate. 

The species inhabits the central Plains States, extending down the Mississippi Valley into Texas and eastward along 
the Ohio Valley into western Pennsylvania (Pittsburg and New Brighton) and the extreme western portion of New York 
(Jamestown). 

Catocala grynea (Cramer) 

Plate IX, fig. 16; PL X, fig. 10; PL X, fig. 37 (larval head); PL XII, fig. 8 (larva); PL XXII, fig. 21 (clasper). 

Phalazna grynea Cramer, 1779, Pap. Exot., Ill, PL covin, figs. F. and H. 
Catocala polygama Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 105, PL xvi, fig. 2. 
Catocala nuptula Walker, 1857, Cat. Lep. Het. Brit. Mus., XIII, p. 1205. 
Catocala grynea ab. constans Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 36. 
Catocala grynea Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 382. 

This common species may be known by the dull olive-gray primaries with obsolescent maculation and a distinct 
ferruginous shade on inner margin beyond t. p. line. Guenee's figure of polygama is very poor but we do not see to what 
other species it can be referred; it is certainly not blandula. Constans Hulst (PI. X, fig. 10) is an aberration with the 
secondaries largely suffused with black. 

The full life-history has yet to be recorded; the mature larva is, however, well-known, the dorsal horn placing it in 
this group. 

The species is wide-spread and occurs throughout the eastern half of Canada and the United States, with the excep- 
tion of the Gulf States and Texas. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 41 

Catocala prseclara Grote and Robinson 
Plate IX, fig. 32; PL XXII, fig. 16 (clasper). 
Catocala prceclara Grote and Robinson, 1866, Proc. Ent.- Soc. Phil., VI, p. 25, PL iv, fig. 4. 

This species possesses a peculiar, pale greenish, metallic sheen on the primaries which should readily distinguish it 
from its allies. Holland's figure (PL xxxv, fig. 7) is incorrect and should be referred to gracilis Edwards; it is the same 
species as his figure 8. The larval history has not been recorded. The species is fairly common in the northern Atlantic 
and New England States, extending into Nova Scotia (Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1908, p. 106); the records from Manitoba 
refer to the following species. Schroers' record (Ent. News, XXV, p. 59) from the vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri, if cor- 
rect, would give a more extended range to the species than our material shows. 

Catocala manitoba Beutenmiiller 
Plate IX, fig. 33; PL XXII, fig. 22 (clasper). 
Catocala manitoba Beutenmuller, 1908, Ent. News, XIX, p. 54. 

This is a duller and darker-colored form than prceclara and may possibly be merely a geographical race of this species. 
It is only known from Manitoba. 

Catocala blandula Hulst 

Plate X, fig. 1; PL XIV, fig. 12 (larva); PL XV, fig. 23 (larval head); PL XV, fig. 39, and PL XVI, 

fig. 3 (segments); PL XXII, fig. 17 (clasper). 

Catocala blandula Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 38. Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
XXXVIII, p. 173. 

This species is closely allied superficially to C. cratwgi and more so to the variety pretiosa. It may be readily sepa- 
rated by the very oblique and almost even transverse anterior line, by the larger basal area, and by the very long inflection 
of the transverse posterior line in the submedian fold which almost touches or rests upon the transverse anterior line; 
when separated, it leaves the space between the two lines on the inner margin much narrower than in C. crato3gi. The 
larvae of the two species are entirely different, blandula being without the fleshy dorsal horn so characteristic of crat&gi. 

It is impossible to determine accurately the range of distribution of this species, as it has been confused with cratcegi 
and mira. It occurs throughout Canada from Nova Scotia to northwestern Ontario (Hymers) and southern Manitoba 
(Cartwright) and extends southward through the New England States into the North Atlantic ones. Its range in the 
West is uncertain but it probably occurs at least in Michigan and Wisconsin and possibly in northern Illinois. We have 
a single specimen before us labelled " Kentucky." 

Catocala alabamse Grote 

Plate IX fig. 17. 

Catocala alabamce Grote, 1875, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., XXVI, p. 427. Beutenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, 
p. 508. 

The dull coloration separates this species at the first glance from prwclara, from which it also differs in minor features 
of maculation, as may be seen by comparing the figures. Nothing is known of the early stages. 

The species occurs in the Gulf States and central Texas (Springfield), extending up the Mississippi Valley to St. Louis, 
Missouri (Ent. News, XXV, 60). We have also a single specimen from Elmwood, Tennessee. 

Catocala olivia Hy. Edwards 
Plate IX, fig. 18; PL XXII, fig. 23 (clasper). 
Catocala olivia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, II, p. 95. Beutenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 508. 

This is possibly a form of alabamw, from which it differs by having a very large black patch on the inner margin of 
the fore wings. It is known only from Texas. 



42 BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

Catocala titania Dodge 
Plate VIII, fig. 19; PI. IX, fig. 34. 
Catocala titania Dodge, 1900, Ent. News, XI, p. 472. Schwarz, 1916, Ent. News, XXVII, p. 67. 

This species may be merely a poorly marked form or race of alabamce; the maculation is not well defined but there 
is nothing, as far as we can see, in the shape of the lines whereby the two might be separated. The single type (now in 
the Barnes Collection) is a rather undersized specimen, due probably to its having been bred; it is figured on plate IX, 
figure 34. 

The only note we have on the life-history is that by Schwarz recording that the ova are laid in crevices of the bark 
of Crataegus crus-galli. 

The species is known to occur only in Missouri and Illinois (Quincy). 

Catocala dulciola Grote 

Plate IX, fig. 31; PI. XXII, fig. 18 (clasper). 
Catocala dulciola Grote, 1881, Papilio, I, p. 5. 

The rare species has quite a characteristic appearance with its pale median area, evenly rounded and prominent 
t. a. line, and brownish basal area with a short, heavy, black dash. It was first taken near Dayton, Ohio, and has since 
been reported from St. Louis, Missouri, and Quincy, Illinois. As far as our present knowledge goes, it is confined to the 
Ohio Valley region. 

Catocala clintoni Grote 

Plate VII, fig. 14; PI. XXII, fig. 24 (clasper). 

Catocala clintonii Grote, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Ill, p. 89, PI. in, fig. 4. Dodge, 1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, p. 221 (larva). 

This distinct species occurs generally throughout the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Its being one of 
the earliest species on the wing possibly accounts for the fact that it is usually not very well represented in collections. 
It is also recorded from Vancouver, British Columbia, in the 1906 British Columbia Check List but the record needs veri- 
fication. The life-history has been fully described by Dodge but, personally, we do not know the larva and have been 
unable to obtain material for figuring. 

Group XVIII 

Egg similar to that of Group XVII. Larva with lateral filaments and a small transverse dorsal wart on the fifth 
abdominal segment. Male claspers symmetrical, with long narrow and pointed apex. 

The single species, similis, included here shows affinity to the preceding group in its early stages, but the male claspers 
are quite characteristic and much closer to those of arnica than to any of the preceding group. The species is an oak- 
feeder. 

Catocala similis Edwards 

Plate X, figs. 6-8; PI. XIII, fig. 15 (larva); PL XV, fig. 43, and PI. XVI, fig. 12 (segments); PL XXII, fig. 25 (clasper). 

Phalcena amasia Abbot and Smith, 1797, Nat. Hist. Lep. Ins. Georgia, II, PL xc (partirn). 

Catocala amasia Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 103. 

Catocala similis Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 511. Barnes and McDunnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

XXXVIII, p. 175. 
Catocala formula Grote and Robinson, 1866, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., VI, p. 27, PL iv, fig. 5. 
Catocala aholah Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 96, PL xi, fig. 8. 
Catocala formula var. isabella Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 60. 

This species may be readily separated into three forms, similis, aholah, and isabella. The type form is deep, almost 
slaty, gray, with a pale triangular apical patch; the figure (PI. X, fig. 6) is too brown in tone. The variety aholah is paler, 
with a large black patch in the median space and a black subapical dash on the outer margin. Holland's figures 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 43 

(PL xxxv, figs. 2 and 3) are just the reverse of this and the names should be interchanged. The variety Isabella is allied 
to aholah but is grayer and lacks the black median patch and subapical dash. 

The latter two names are based on Texan material and possibly represent forms of a good geographical race, peculiar 
to the Southern States. 

The typical form is found in the New England and northern Atlantic States, extending northward into Ontario and 
Quebec. In the southern Atlantic and Gulf States it merges into aholah, which we have never seen from northern localities. 



Group XIX 

Egg (where known) similar to that of the preceding groups. Larva with filaments and a rather prominent dorsal 
wart. Male claspers asymmetrical, apices rounded. 

The larvse are oak-feeders, with the exception of minuta which feeds on Glcditschia and which possibly may form a 
group by itself as the male claspers show certain points of distinction. However, there is no doubt that considerable 
relationship exists between minuta and micronympha and we prefer to retain the species in one group for the present. 

Catocala minuta Edwards 
Plate IX, figs. 1-6; PI. XI, figs. 12 and 13 (larva); PL XXII, figs. 30 and 31 (claspers). 

Catocala minuta Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 512. Dodge, 1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, p. 222 (larva). 

Catocala parvula Edwards, 1864, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., II, p. 512. 

Catocala minuta var. mellitula Htjlst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 35. 

This is a small species with very variable fore wings. The type form is dark brown with a distinct, broad, white, 
subterminal line. The variety parvula (PI. IX, fig. 2) is grayish or yellowish on the costal half and deep brown along the 
inner margin and on the outer margin to below the apex. The variety mellitula (Fig. 3) has the subbasal space and the 
whole of the median space yellow, the remaining parts being brown. There are numerous intergrading forms. 

The species is wide-spread throughout the eastern half of the United States, probably occurring wherever Gleditschia 
grows; it is common in the central Plain States. 

Catocala micronympha Guenee 

Plate IX, figs. 22-30; PI. XIV, fig. 11 (larva); PI. XV, fig. 24 (larval head); PL XV, fig. 41, and PI. XVI, fig. 11 (segments); 

PL XXII, figs. 26 and 27 (claspers). 

Catocala micronympha Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 102. Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

XVI, p. 382, PL lii, fig. 1 (larva). Barnes and McDtjnnough, 1918, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXXVIII, p. 176. 
Catocala f rater cula Grote and Robinson, 1866, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., VI, p. 24, PL iv, fig. 3. 
Catocala alarah Strecker, 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 97, PL xi, figs. 10 and 11. 
Catocala gisela Meyer, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, II, p. 96. 

Catocala f rater cula var. jacquenetta Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 60. 
Catocala timandra Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 60. 
Catocala clintonii var. helene Pilate, 1882, Papilio, II, p. 31. 
Catocala fratercula var. hero Hy. Edwards, 1884, Papilio, IV, p. 125. 
Catocala f rater cula var. ouwah Poling, 1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, p. 128. 

This species shows extraordinary variability in the coloration of the primaries; when more is known about the species 
it may be found that there are several geographical races, but for the present we must treat them as mere forms or color 
phases. The typical form is that with chestnut-brown primaries (PL IX, fig. 22); it is apparently most typical in the 
South, all of our Floridan specimens being of this form. Fratercula Grote and Robinson is the pale olive-green form with 
the markings of varied intensity (Fig. 25) ; if necessary, this name may be applied to the northern Atlantic States form, 
the type material being from New York and Rhode Island; helene, jacquenetta, and timandra all seem to have been applied 
to slight variants of this form and the names are scarcely worth retaining; it is possible, however, that timandra, based on 
Texan material, may prove to have racial characteristics when more material is available. Holland's figure under 
jacquenetta (PI. xxxv, fig. 5) is not typical; it is better referred to the type form. Atarah Strecker (as based on the male 



44 BARNES AND^McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 

specimen) is similar to the type form with the addition of a pale subreniform and a pale band beyond the t. a. line- it 
was described from Texan material; many specimens from this locality are heavily suffused with black-brown (Fig 28) 
and others show, besides this, a black basal dash (Fig. 29); to such specimens the name ouwdh would apply. Hero Hv 
Edwards (Figs. 23, 24, and 27), the type from Florida, is a form with prominent white shading in the median area while 
gisela Meyer (Fig. 30) is a very striking form from the South (Georgia) with dark median area and white terminal band 
Typical specimens of this latter form are rare but transitional forms with a prominent white s. t. line (Fig. 21) are more 
common. 

The species has a wide range, occurring over the greater portion of the eastern half of the United States. In the New 
England States it has not been recorded north of Massachusetts nor have we it listed from Quebec; it has, however, been 
reported from Ontario (Rep. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1885, p. 60). 

Catocala Cordelia Hy. Edwards 

Plate IX, fig. 19; PI. XXII, figs. 28 and 29 (claspers). 

Phalcena amasia Abbot and Smith (nee Esper), 1797, Nat. Hist. Ins. Georgia, II, p. 179, PL xc (partim). 

Catocala Cordelia Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 59. Betjtenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat Hist XXXIII 
p. 146. 

Smith, as distinctly stated in the text, based his diagnosis of amasia on the upper right-hand figure of plate xc and 
the name must be held to this species; the lower figure is that of similis Edwards. As, however, amasia Abbot and Smith 
is preoccupied by amasia Esper the next oldest name, cordelia Hy. Edwards, must be applied to this species. It is char- 
acterized by the broad, whitish, median area with paucity of maculation. We agree with Beutenmiiller in correcting 
French's misidentification of this species (Can. Ent., XXXIV, p. 97) and referring his figures 2 and 3 to amasia, not his 
figure 1; French's copy of Abbot's figure is poor, the t. p. line being far too greatly accentuated. 

The species occurs through the Atlantic Coast and Gulf States to Texas and has been reported from southern Illinois 
by French and from eastern Kansas by Snow (Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci., VII, p. 51). 

Catocala connubialis Guenee 

Plate IX, fig. 21. 

Catocala connubialis Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 105. 

Catocala amasia Strecker (nee Abbot and Smith), 1874, Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 77, PI. ix, fig. 12. Holland, 1903, Moth Book, p. 268, 

PI. xxxv, fig. 1. 
Catocala sancta Hulst, 1884, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, VII, p. 38. 
Catocala amasia var. virens French, 1886, Can. Ent., XVIII, p. 162. 

This possibly may prove to be merely a strongly marked form of cordelia Hy. Edwards; the two forms occur through- 
out the same territory and apparently together, to judge by French's remarks. A few specimens before us seem rather 
to intergrade with cordelia. Until the early stages of both forms are known, we prefer to treat them as separate species; 
we would note, however, that the male genitalia are absolutely identical. We hardly imagine that GueneVs note that the 
larva feeds on Cephalanthus will prove correct; it was based on a drawing by Abbot who frequently figured his larvae on 
plants upon which it has since been proved they never feed; presumably the larva is an oak-feeder. 

Group XX 
(Corisce Hiibner) 

Egg unknown. Larva with short lateral filaments but without a dorsal wart. Male claspers symmetrical, with very 
pointed and rather serrate apices. 

The egg will probably be similar to those of the preceding groups; the larvse are oak-feeders. Hampson's separation 
of the genus Corisce on the ground that the abdominal tufting is absent is not very good; the abdomen is scarcely smoother 
in appearance than those of several of the smaller yellow-hind-winged species of the preceding groups. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 45 

Catocala arnica (Hubner) 

Plate VIII, fig. 20; PI. IX, figs. 11-15; PL X, fig. 39 (larval head) ; PI. XII, fig. 12 (larva); PI. XXII, fig. 33 (clasper). 

Ephesia arnica Hubner, 1815, Zutr. Exot. Schmett., p. 14, Figs. 57 and 58. 

Corisce arnica Hubner, 1825, Verz. Bek. Schmett., p. 279. 

Catocala arnica Beutenmuller, 1902, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XVI, p. 384, PI. lii, fig. 3 (larva); idem., 1907, XXIII, p. 145. 

Rowley and Berry, 1910, Ent. News, XXI, p. 448 (larva). 
Catocala androphila Guenee, 1852, Hist. Nat. Spec. Gen. Lep., VII, p. 106. 
Catocala lineella Grote, 1872, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, IV, p. 18. 

Catocala arnica var. nerissa Hy. Edwards, 1880, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc, III, p. 61. 
Catocala arnica var. suffusa Beutenmuller, 1903, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XIX, p. 508. 
Catocala arnica var. androphila Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 146. 
Catocala arnica subsp. novanglicB Reiff, 1916, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 12, PI. n, figs. 1 and 2. 
Catocala arnica form melanotica Reiff, 1916, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 15. 
Catocala arnica form aurantiaca Reiff, 1916, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 15. Dyar, 1917, The Lepidopterist, I, p. 31. 

As Beutenmuller has pointed out, the typical form, according to Hiibner's figure, has an olivaceous-gray tinge to 
the primaries, distinct maculation, but no curved dark apical shade; figure 11 of plate IX is closest to this conception 
but rather darker in ground color. Androphila Guenee was merely a name proposed to replace arnica Hubner which 
Guenee considered preoccupied by Hadena arnica Treitschke and, as such, has no status and cannot be used to designate 
any variety or form of arnica, as proposed by Beutenmuller (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 146), but becomes 
an absolute synonym of this species, Hiibner's name being perfectly valid. Grote,. considering Guenee's description of 
androphila to be that of typical arnica and applicable to a form with the dark, apical, curved mark (Fig. 14), redescribed 
the typical form (or a slightly darker variety of it) as lineella. He gave no definite localities and his type cannot be found 
but, according to the description, figure 11 would be quite typical. 

Nerissa H. Edwards was applied to a form from Texas with deep blackish primaries, sparsely mottled with white; we 
have not seen the type but presume Beutenmuller's figure (PI. VIII, fig. 20) is correct. We would note that the t. p. line 
is not nearly so dentate in this figure as in typical arnica and have quite a number of specimens from Texas and Arkansas 
before us which show this peculiarity; others, however, from the same locality agree in this respect with arnica so that 
the variation may be merely individual; the black spot at the anal angle of the secondaries is also very heavy in nerissa, 
as compared with the minute spot of arnica; breeding is very necessary to determine the status of this form. Holland's 
figure of nerissa (PL xxxn, fig. 20) is best referred to typical arnica; his figure 16 is a pale arnica and his figure 19 cannot 
be lineella as it shows the curved apical mark; it is what Grote called androphila but apparently has no valid name. 

Suffusa Beutenmuller (Fig. 15) was described from three specimens in the Barnes Collection from widely divergent 
localities (Florida, Texas, and Iowa) . As it is possible that more than one race is involved in these types we would restrict 
the name to the female type from Harris County, Texas, which is figured in this paper but which is erroneously marked 
by Beutenmuller on the type label as a male. 

Recently Reiff has described and figured a race from the New England States as novangliw; this race is unknown to us. 
In the same paper he proposes the term melanotica for " suffused specimens of arnica which are not nerissa," which he con- 
siders to be purely Texan; as, however, he has failed to note that arnica was originally based on Georgian material and 
considers " Pennsylvania" material to be typical, it is quite impossible to determine to what form the name melanotica 
must be applied, especially as no mention is made of individual types or type localities. A still more poorly grounded 
name is his aurantiaca, which was originally a collective term for all specimens — no matter to what form they belonged — 
which showed a rather deeper yellow tone on the secondaries; this name was very properly limited by Dr. Dyar to the 
deeper colored specimens of the race novanglia; even so, we believe the name to be quite superfluous. 

The life-history of the species is incomplete and, until we know more concerning the larvse of the various southern 
forms, it is impossible to list them correctly. 

The species in one form or another extends throughout the eastern half of the United States, reaching northward 
into southern Ontario and Maine. 

Catocala jair Strecker 

Plate IX, figs. 10 and 20; PI. -XXII, fig. 32 (clasper). 
Catocala jair Strecker, 1897, Ent. News, VIII, p. 116. 

This species is closely allied to arnica but differs in the straighter and less dentate t. p. line and the broad brown-shaded 



46 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 



band following this line. We believe that specimens from Ohio which have been distributed as jair should be referred 
to nerissa Hy. Edwards, as figured on plate VIII, figure 20; they show the non-dentate t. p. line but lack entirely the 
brown subterminal shade which seems even more constant and characteristic than the shape of the t. p. line. 

The type specimens (thirty in number) were taken in the Indian River region of Florida and since that time the 
species has remained almost unknown. Recently (Ent. News, XXI, p. 385), it has been reported from Lakehurst New 
Jersey; if this identification be correct, collectors in this region should endeavor to secure ova and obtain the life-history 
Beutenmuller (Ent. News, XXII, p. 140) records a dark form from Texas but this identification is very doubtful and prob- 
ably should be referred to nerissa. 



The following two species have been included by Mr. Beutenmuller in the genus Catocala but, in our opinion, must 
be removed and placed in separate genera. The life-history of one of these species, nubilis, has been shown by Mr. Rothke 
(1912, Entom. Rundschau, XXIX, pp. 67-76) to be distinctly non-catocaline; the egg is different, the larva is distinct, 
and there are two annual generations, the pupa hibernating, whereas in Catocala there is always only a single generation 
and the egg hibernates. This difference in the life cycle warrants a separation and this is further confirmed by the male 
claspers, which are totally distinct from anything found in the Catocala group, being very primitive in character and 
lacking the harpe. 

Regarding the other species, elonympha, little is apparently known of the early stages, although we have Wasmuth's 
statement (1911, Ent. News, XXII, p. 139) that the egg is vastly different from the ordinary Catocala egg. Furthermore, 
it would appear from the records (Engel, Ann. Cam. Mus., 1908, p. 69) that this species also is double-brooded and prob- 
ably has a life cycle similar to that of nubilis. The male claspers are also extraordinarily different and, besides being 
strongly asymmetrical, show a complicated armature which may best be understood by a reference to the figure. 

For the above reasons, therefore, we have placed these two species in the genera Euparthenos and Ephesia 
respectively. 

Euparthenos Grote 

Euparthenos nubilis (Hiibner) 

Plate VII, figs. 1-4; PL XXI, fig. 20 (clasper). 

Parthenos nubilis Hubner, 1822, Samml. Exot. Schmett., II, PL ccxv. 

Euparthenos nubilis Grote, 1876, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, XI, p. 301. Rothke, 1912, Ent. Rundschau, XXIX, pp. 67-69 and 

74-76 (larva). 
Catocalirrhus nubilis Andrews, 1877, Can. Ent., IX, p. 20. 

Catocala nubilis v&r.fasciata Beutenmuller, 1907, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., XXIII, p. 150. 
Parthenos nubilis var. apache Poling, 1901, Can. Ent., XXXIII, p. 129. 

Hubner' s figure is based on a female specimen; in this sex the primaries are normally almost entirely suffused with 
black shades as in plate VII, figure 1. The male (Fig. 2) is much more shaded with white, and Beutenmuller's fasciata 
(Fig. 3) is based on a specimen of this sex with slightly more extended white shading than usual; as, however, the amount 
of white suffusion is quite variable, we see no reason for retaining the name. The race apache Poling (Fig. 4) from Arizona 
has the black banding on the secondaries much reduced. 

The species extends from the southern New England States along the Atlantic Coast to North Carolina and west- 
ward through the Ohio Valley region to the Mississippi River. We have specimens from Vicksburg, Mississippi, so that 
its range will probably be found to be more extended than our present records indicate. It is recorded as rare in Kansas 
(Proc. Kan. Acad. Sci., IV, p. 50). In the North it is found in Wisconsin and Iowa and is quite common in southern 
Ontario. 



BARNES AND McDUNNOUGH: CATOCALA 47 



EPHESIA Hubner 



Ephesia elonympha Hubner 
Plate X, figs. 11-13; PI. XXI, figs. 21 and 22 (claspers). 

Ephesia elonympha Hubner, 1815, Zutr. Exot. Schmett., I, p. 11, figs. 29 and 30. 
Allotria elonympha Hubner, 1825, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 280. 

As we have already mentioned, we believe that the generic term Ephesia must be used for this species, Hubner's 
later usage of this generic name in the • Verzeichniss ' being invalidated by his earlier reference. 

The species is quite variable in the amount of white suffusion on the primaries, figure 11 being fairly typical accord- 
ing to Hubner's figure. 

Judging by the dates on our series of specimens, the species is double-brooded, occurring in early spring and again in 
July and August. Its range appears to be similar to that of the preceding species, with the exception that we have no 
records of its occurrence in Arizona. 



PLATE I 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig- 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 



Plate I 



Calocala agrippina Strecker, cf . 

Catocala agrippina Strecker, 9 . 

Catocala agrippina Strecker, 9 • 

Catocala agrippina Strecker. Aberration. 

Catocala agrippina Strecker, 9 . 

Catocala agrippina form subviridis Harvey. 

Catocala insolabilis Guenee, cf . 

Catocala insolabilis Guenee, 9 . 

Catocala relicta Walker, cf ■ 

Catocala relicta form phrynia Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala relicta form clara Beutenmiiller. 

Catocala relicta variety elda Behrens. 

Catocala relicta Walker. Type. 

Catocala sappho Strecker. 

Catocala judith Strecker. 

Catocala epione (Drury). 

Catocala vidua (Abbot and Smith) . 

Catocala andromedce (Guenee). C. tristis Edwards. 

Catocala unijuga aberration fletcheri Beutenmiiller. Type. 

Catocala maistosa (Hulst). 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate I 














12 






15 




16 



HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE II 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 



Plate II 



Catocala lacrymosa Guenee, d 1 . 

Catocala lacrymosa form zelica French. 

Catocala lacrymosa form evelina French. 

Catocala lacrymosa form paulina Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala lacrymosa form paulina Hy. Edwards, cf . 

Catocala lacrymosa variety ulalume Strecker. 

Catocala lacrymosa Guenee, 9 . 

Catocala dejecta Strecker. 

Catocala robinsoni Grote. 

Catocala robinsoni form curvata French, 9 . 

Catocala retecta Grote, cf . 

Catocala flebilis Grote, cf . 

Catocala angusi Grote, cT. 

Catocala angusi form edna Beutenmiiller, 9 . Type. 

Catocala angusi form lucetta Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala angusi Grote. Aberration. 

Catocala obscura Strecker, 9 . 

Catocala residua Grote, d 71 . 

Catocala retecta form luctuosa Hulst, 9 . 

Catocala retecta form luctuosa Hulst, d 71 . 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate II 








- 'Mi 



-:r 








^.10& 





13 



14 



15 




w 




% 



#.:*> 






fT^-w^ 



/ 



17 



18 





20 



HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE III 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 



Plate III 



Catocala aholibah Strecker. 

Catocala aholibah variety coloradensis Beutenmuller, 9 • Type. 

Catocala violenta Hy. Edwards, cf ■ 

Catocala violenta Hy. Edwards, 9 . 

Catocala briseis Edwards, cf • 

Catocala briseis Edwards, 9 . Pale form. 

Catocala ajotiana Bailey. 

Catocala briseis variety albida Beutenmuller. Type. 

Catocala car a Guenee. 

Catocala car a variety carissima Hulst. 

Catocala amatrix (Hiibner) . 

Catocala amatrix form selecta Walker. 

Catocala amatrix variety pallida Poling. 

Catocala parta Guenee. 

Catocala concumbens Walker, cf . 

Catocala coccinata Grote. 

Catocala coccinata variety circe Strecker. 

Catocala coccinata variety sinuosa Grote. 

Catocala marmorata Edwards. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S. t Vol. Ill, Plate III 














10 



1! 




i 




;W, 



13 





16 





18 




HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTOI* 



PLATE IV 



Plate IV 



Fig. 1. Catocala pur a Hulst. 

Fig. 2. Catocala semirelicta Grote. 

Fig. 3. Catocala hippolyta Strecker. 

Fig. 4. Catocala stretchi Behr. 

Fig. 5. Catocala stretchi Behr. Variety. 

Fig. 6. Catocala unijuga Walker. 

Fig. 7. Catocala unijuga variety agatha Beutenmuller. Type. 

Fig. 8. Catocala meskei Grote. 

Fig. 9. Catocala irene Behr. 

Fig. 10. Catocala irene variety Valeria Hy. Edwards. 

Fig. 11. Catocala irene form virgilia Hy. Edwards. 

Fig. 12. Catocala irene form volumnia Hy. Edwards. Typical. 

Fig. 13. Catocala irene form volumnia Hy. Edwards. Variety. 

Fig. 14. Catocala stretchi Behr. 

Fig. 15. Catocala stretchi Behr, cf. 

Fig. 16. Catocala aspasia variety augusta Hy. Edwards. 

Fig. 17. Catocala aspasia variety sara French. 

Fig. 18. Catocala stretchi form sierrce Beutenmuller. Typical. 

Fig. 19. Catocala stretchi Hy. Edwards. Pink variety. 

Fig. 20. Catocala arizonce Grote. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate IV 









*jkJ^ 





10 



11 



rz 








,f 



? 



13 



14 








HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE V, 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 



Plate V 



Catocala calif ornica Edwards. 

Catocala hermia Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala nevadensis Beutenmiiller. Type form. 

Catocala nevadensis form montana Beutenmiiller. 

Catocala aspasia Strecker. 

Catocala arizonoz Grote. 

Catocala arizonce, form babayaga Strecker. Variety. 

Catocala arizonce form babayaga Strecker. 

Catocala arizonoz form babayaga Strecker. 

Catocala texance French. 

Catocala hermia Hy. Edwards (?). 

Catocala cleopatra Strecker. 

Catocala cleopatra form perdita Strecker. 

Catocala allusa Hulst (?). 

Catocala allusa Hulst. 

Catocala faustina Strecker. 

Catocala faustina form zillah Strecker. 

Catocala faustina form lydia Beutenmiiller. Type. 

Catocala faustina variety ccerulea Beutenmiiller. Type. 

Catocala faustina aberration carlota Beutenmiiller. Type. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate V 










- 




'!i & 





> 





17 



18 



19 



20 



HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE VI 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 



Plate VI 



Catocala cerogama Guenee. 

Catocala piatrix Grote. 

Catocala piatrix variety dionyza Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala ilia form umbrosa Worthington. 

Catocala ilia form confusa Worthington. 

Catocala ilia (Cramer). Close to form duplicata Worthington. 

Catocala ilia form conspicua Worthington. 

Catocala zoe Behr. Variety. 

Catocala zoe Behr. Type form. 

Catocala neogama (Abbot and Smith), <?. 

Catocala neogama (Abbot and Smith), 9 . Dark form. 

Catocala neogama aberration snowiana Grote. Type. 

Catocala delilah Strecker. 

Catocala delilah variety desdemona Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala subnata Grote, 9 • 

Catocala subnata Grote, cf. 

Catocala nebulosa Edwards. 

Catocala palozogama Guenee. 

Catocala palceogama form phalanga Grote. 

Catocala palceogama form annida Fager. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate VI 









12 




HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE VII 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 



Plate VII 



Euparthenos nubilis (Hiibner), 9 . 
Euparthenos nubilis (Hiibner), cf. 
Euparthenos nubilis form fasciata Beutenmiiller. 
Euparthenos nubilis variety apache Poling. 
Catocala habilis Grote. 
Catocala serena Edwards. 
Catocala consors (Abbot and Smith) . 
Catocala coelebs Grote. 
Catocala innubens Guenee, c? . 
Catocala innubens Guenee 9 • 
Catocala innubens form scintillans Grote. 
Catocala frederici Grote. 
Catocala illecta Walker. 
Catocala clintoni Grote. 
Catocala antinympha (Hiibner) . 
Catocala badia Grote and Robinson. 
Catocala ultronia form lucinda Beutenmiiller. 
Catocala ultronia form celia Hy. Edwards. 
Catocala ultronia form adriana Hy. Edwards. 
Catocala ultronia (Hiibner). Type form. 
Catocala luciana Strecker. Type form. 
Catocala luciana Strecker. Variety. 
Catocala luciana form somnus Dodge. 
Catocala muliercula Guenee. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate VII 















12 



J&. 





j^^-S 





14 



16 



13 







l 




i 




17 



18 



19 



20 




21 






23 



24 



HEL10TYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE VIII 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 



Plate VIII 



Catocala verecunda Hulst, d 1 . 

Catocala verecunda Hulst, 9 . 

Catocala verecunda Hulst. 

Catocala verecunda Hulst. 

Catocala verecunda Hulst. Variety (?). 

Catocala junctura Walker. 

Catocala junctura Walker. Variety. 

Catocala verecunda form diantha Beutenmuller. Variety (?). 

Catocala verecunda form diantha Beutenmuller. 

Catocala herodias Strecker. 

Catocala verecunda Hulst. Variety. 

Catocala Jessica Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala ophelia Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala ophelia variety dolli Beutenmuller. Type. 

Catocala verrilliana variety beutenmuelleri Barnes and McDunnough 

Catocala verrilliana aberration werneri Biederman. 

Catocala amestris Strecker. 

Catocala amestris variety westcotti Grote. 

Catocala titania Dodge. 

Catocala arnica form nerissa Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala orba Kusnezov. 

Catocala miranda Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala unijuga form beaniana Grote. 

Catocala electilis Walker. 

Catocala denussa Ehrmann. Type. 

Catocala euphemia Beutenmuller. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate VIII 








23 



24 



HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE IX 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33. 


Fig. 


34. 


Fig. 


35. 



Plate IX 



Catocala minuta Edwards. 

Catocala minuta form parvula Edwards. 

Catocala minuta form mellitula Hulst. 

Catocala minuta Edwards. Variety. 

Catocala minuta Edwards. Variety. 

Catocala minuta Edwards. Variety. 

Catocala gracilis Edwards. 

Catocala gracilis form sordida Grote. 

Catocala gracilis form sordida Grote. 

Catocala jair Strecker, o 71 . 

Catocala arnica (Hubner). Type form. 

Catocala arnica (Hubner). Pale form. 

Catocala arnica (Hubner). Variety. 

Catocala arnica (Hubner). Variety. 

Catocala arnica form suffusa Beutenmuller. Type. 

Catocala grynea (Cramer). 

Catocala alabamoB Grote. 

Catocala olivia Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala Cordelia Hy. Edwards. P. amasia Abbot and Smith. 

Catocala jair Strecker, 9 . 

Catocala connubialis Guen6e. C. sancta Hulst. 

Catocala micronympha Guenee. 

Catocala micronympha form hero Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala micronympha form hero Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala micronympha form jacquenetta Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala micronympha Guenee. Variety. 

Catocala micronympha form hero Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala micronympha Guenee. Variety. 

Catocala micronympha form ouwah Poling. Type. 

Catocala micronympha form gisela Meyer. 

Catocala dulciola Grote. 

Catocala pr cedar a Grote and Robinson. 

Catocala manitoba Beutenmuller. 

Catocala titania Dodge. Type. 

Catocala andromache Hy. Edwards. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate IX 





*,* 



! 




I 




* 



M 



I 




f 








TO 




A 



* w 




; ; ' l 





11 



12 



13 



14 



15 




16 







g 



17 




I 




18 







20 




21 



22 



23 



24 



25 







jfi& 




27 



28 



29 



30 



s 



1NP 



31 







33 



34 



35 



HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE X 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33. 


Fig. 


34. 


Fig. 


35. 


Fig. 


36. 


Fig. 


37. 


Fig. 


38. 


Fig. 


39. 



Plate X 



Catocala blandula Hulst. 

Catocala mira Grote. Variety. 

Catocala mira Grote. Type form. 

Catocala cratcegi form pretiosa Lintner. 

Catocala cratcegi Saunders. 

Catocala similis Edwards. 

Catocala similis form aholah Strecker. 

Catocala similis form isabella Hy. Edwards. 

Catocala chelidonia Grote. 

Catocala grynea aberration constans Hulst. 

Ephesia elonympha Hiibner. 

Ephesia elonympha Hiibner. Variety. 

Ephesia elonympha Hiibner. Variety. 

Catocala verrilliana Grote. 

Catocala verrilliana aberration votiva Hulst. 

Catocala whitneyi Dodge. 

Catocala whitneyi Dodge. Dark form. 

Catocala abbreviatella Grote. 

Catocala nuptialis Walker. 

Catocala messalina Guenee. 

Head of larva of Catocala cratmgi. 

Head of larva of Catocala ultronia. 

Head of larva of Catocala insolabilis. 

Head of larva of Catocala habilis. 

Head of larva of Catocala mcestosa. 

Head of larva of Catocala ilia. 

Head of larva of Catocala piatrix. 

Head of larva of Catocala judith. 

Head of larva of Catocala neogama. 

Head of larva of Catocala ittecta. 

Head of larva of Catocala consors. 

Head of larva of Catocala badia. 

Head of larva of Catocala amestris. 

Head of larva of Catocala parta. 

Head of larva of Catocala innubens. 

Head of larva of Catocala amatrix. 

Head of larva of Catocala grynea. 

Head of larva of Catocala cara. 

Head of larva of Catocala arnica. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S.. Vol. Ill, Plate X 













10 






ii 



12 



13 








16 



17 



18 





20 





21 



22 







24 



25 



26 




;. 



27 



*--*"• 



IP 




23 




29 





30 




1 



33 



34 



35 



36 



37 




31 



38 




f 
32 



* 



39 



HEUOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE XI 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 



Plate XI 



Larva of Catocala car a. 

Larva of Catocala cava. Immature. 

Larva of Catocala amatrix. 

Larva of Catocala parta. 

Larva of Catocala concumbens. Lateral filaments omitted. 

Larva of Catocala piatrix. According to Beutenmiiller. 

Larva of Catocala mcestosa. Immature; lateral filaments omitted. 

Larva of Catocala neogama. 

Larva of Catocala neogama. 

Larva of Catocala innubens. 

Larva of Catocala paloBogama. Poor figure. 

Larva of Catocala minuta. Dark form, natural size. 

Larva of Catocala minuta. Gray form, enlarged. 

Larva of Catocala pur a. Color too white. 

Larva of Catocala Judith. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S.. Vol. Ill, Plate XI 




HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE XII 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 



Plate XII 



Larva of Catocala habilis. 

Larva of Catocala badia. 

Larva of Catocala badia. 

Larva of Catocala badia. 

Larva of Catocala badia. Immature. 

Larva of Catocala badia. Immature. 

Larva of Catocala amestris. 

Larva of Catocala grynea. 

Larva of Catocala ilia. Poor figure. 

Larva of Catocala illecta. 

Larva of Catocala insolabilis. 

Larva of Catocala arnica. 

Larva of Catocala muliercula. 

Larva of Catocala antinympha. 

Larva of Catocala ultronia. Paler than normal. 

Larva of Catocala consors. 

Larva of Catocala ultronia. 

Larva of Catocala cratcegi. 

Larva of Catocala flebilis. 

Larva of Catocala retecta. • 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XII 




HEUOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE XIII 







Plate XIII 


Fig. 


1. 


Larva of Catocala r electa. 


Fig. 


2. 


Larva of Catocala residua. 


Fig. 


3. 


Larva of Catocala epione,. 


Fig. 


4. 


Larva of Catocala palceogama 


Fig. 


5. 


Larva of Catocala piatrix. 


Fig. 


6. 


Larva of Catocala vidua. 


Fig. 


7. 


Larva of Catocala briseis. 


Fig. 


8. 


Larva of Catocala unijuga. 


Fig. 


9. 


Larva of Catocala californica. 


Fig. 


10. 


Larva of Catocala porta. 


Fig. 


11. 


Larva of Catocala verecunda. 


Fig. 


12. 


Larva of Catocala mira. 


Fig. 


13. 


Larva of Catocala irene. 


Fig. 


14. 


Larva of Catocala relicta. 


Fig. 


15. 


Larva of Catocala similis. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XIII 




S. F. PRINCE, DEL. 



HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE XIV 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 



Plate XIV 



Larva of Catocala coccinata. 

Larva of Catocala delilah variety desdemona. 

Larva of Catocala pura. 

Larva of Catocala grotiana. 

Larva of Catocala zoe. 

Larva of Catocala aholibah. 

Larva of Catocala aspasia. 

Larva of Catocala ophelia. 

Larva of Catocala semirelicta. 

Larva of Catocala verrilliana variety beutenmuelleri. 

Larva of Catocala micronympha. 

Larva of Catocala blandula. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XIV 




S. F. PRINCE, DEL. 



HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE XV 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33. 


Fig. 


34. 


Fig. 


35. 


Fig. 


36. 


Fig. 


37. 


Fig. 


38. 


Fig. 


39. 


Fig. 


40. 


Fig. 


41. 


Fig. 


42. 


Fig. 


43. 



Plate XV 

All figures X 5 

Head of larva of Catocala vidua. 

Head of larva of Catocala residua. 

Head of larva of Catocala retecta. 

Head of larva of Catocala grotiana. 

Head of larva of Catocala relicta. 

Head of larva of Catocala palwogama. 

Head of larva of Catocala epione. 

Head of larva of Catocala piatrix. 

Head of larva of Catocala aholibah. 

Head of larva of Catocala zoe. 

Head of larva of Catocala ultronia. 

Head of larva of Catocala aspasia. 

Head of larva of Catocala pur a. 

Head of larva of Catocala calif ornica. 

Head of larva of Catocala verecunda. 

Head of larva of Catocala unijuga. 

Head of larva of Catocala briseis. 

Head of larva of Catocala delilah variety desde?nona. 

Head of larva of Catocala semirelicta. 

Head of larva of Catocala coccinata. 

Head of larva of Catocala irene. 

Head of larva of Catocala mira. 

Head of larva of Catocala blandula. 

Head of larva of Catocala micronympha. 

Head of larva of Catocala similis. 

Head of larva of Catocala ophelia. 

Head of larva of Catocala verrilliana variety beutenmuelleri. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala delilah variety desdemona. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala residua. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala paloeogama. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala retecta. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala vidua. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala coccinata. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala ophelia. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala pur a. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala mira. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala aspasia. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala aholibah. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala blandula. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala verrilliana variety beutenmuelleri 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala micronympha. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala zoe. 

Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala similis. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XV 




36 



37 



38 




*mm 




41 



42 



43 



S. F. PRINCE, DEL. 



HELIOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE XVI 



Plate XVI 

All figures X 5 

Fig. 1. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala epione. 

Fig. 2. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala delilah variety desdemona. 

Fig. 3. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala blandula. 

Fig. 4. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocpla mira. 

Fig. 5. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala pur a. 

Fig. 6. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala Irene. 

Fig. 7. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala verrilliana variety beutenmuelleri. 

Fig. 8. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala ophelia. 

Fig. 9. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala aspasia. 

Fig. 10. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala zoe. 

Fig. 11. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala micronympha. 

Fig. 12. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala similis. 

Fig. 13. Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala aholibah. 

Fig. 14. Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala relicta. 

Fig. 15. Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala grotiana. 

Fig. 16. Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala semirelicta. 

Fig. 17. Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala briseis. 

Fig. 18. Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala irene. 

Fig. 19. Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala californica. 

Fig. 20. Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala unijuga. 

Fig. 21. Eighth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala verecunda. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XVI 












> '»«»«f S, 'V '**©• 



X 






v,« * ^s 



.V 



3& 



9 












15 










16 




13 



19 






■ 



20 




17 



21 



S. F. PRINCE, DEL. 



HELIOTYFE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE XVII 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 



Plate XVII 



All figures X 5 

Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala californica. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala grotiana. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala residua. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala briseis. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala palosogama. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala r electa. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala verecunda: 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala unijuga. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala semirelicta. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala relicta. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala coccinata. 
Fifth abdominal segment of larva of Catocala vidua. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XVII 







^ *♦ 











*JfS&Ls M 






7W 



Alt* .-„*• V 



r>, 



T i.'i 








12 



S. F. PRINCE, DEL, 



HEUOTYPE CO. BOSTON. 



PLATE XVIII 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33. 


Fig. 


34. 


Fig. 


35. 


Fig. 


36. 


Fig. 


37. 


Fig. 


38! 


Fig. 


39. 


Fig. 


40. 



Plate XVIII 

Right clasper of Catocala innubens, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala innubens, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala piatrix, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala piatrix, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala epione, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala epione, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala consors, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala consors, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala muliercula, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala muliercula, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala antinympha, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala antinympha, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala coelebs, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala coelebs, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala badia, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala badia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala habilis, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala habilis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala serena, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala serena, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala robinsoni, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala robinsoni, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala Judith, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala Judith, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala angusi, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala angusi, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala obscura, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala obscura, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala residua, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala residua, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala sappho, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala sappho, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala flebilis, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala flebilis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala agrippina, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala agrippina, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala retecta, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala retecta, enlarged. • 
Right clasper of Catocala dejecta, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala dejecta, enlarged. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XVIII 




PLATE XIX 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 



Plate XIX 



Right clasper of Catocala insolabilis, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala insolabilis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala vidua, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala vidua, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala mosstosa, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala mcestosa, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala lacrymosa, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala lacrymosa, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala nebulosa, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala nebulosa, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala neogama, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala neogama, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala subnata, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala subnata, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala euphemia, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala euphemia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala palceogama, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala palmogama, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala aholibah, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala aholibah, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala cerogama, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala cerogama, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala ilia, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala ilia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala relicta, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala relicta, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala marmorata, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala marmorata, enlarged. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XIX 




PLATE XX 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33. 


Fig. 


34. 


Fig. 


35. 


Fig. 


36. 


Fig. 


37. 


Fig. 


38. 



Plate XX 



Right clasper of Catocala parta, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala parta, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala luciana, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala luciana, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala verecunda, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala verecunda, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala Irene, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala Irene, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala allusa, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala allusa, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala faustina, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala faustina, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala calif ornica, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala calif ornica, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala hermia, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala hermia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala cleopatra, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala cleopatra, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala francisca, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala francisca, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala briseis, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala briseis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala grotiana, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala grotiana, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala meskei, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala meskei, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala unijuga, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala unijuga, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala pur a, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala pur a, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala nevadensis, enlarged, 
Left clasper of Catocala nevadensis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala texance, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala texance, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala junctura, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala junctura, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala arizonce, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala arizonce, enlarged. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XX 




^^ 



21 




PLATE XXI 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 



Plate XXI 



Right clasper of Catocala electilis, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala electilis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala aspasia, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala aspasia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala hippolyta, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala hippolyta, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala stretchi, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala stretchi, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala car a, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala amatrix, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala concumbens, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala delilah, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala delilah, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala andromache, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala andromache, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala frederici, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala frederici, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala chelidonia, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala chelidonia, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Euparthenos nubilis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Ephesia elonympha, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Ephesia elonympha, enlarged. 
Fore tibia of Catocala piatrix. 
Middle tibia of Catocala piatrix. 
Hind tibia of Catocala piatrix. 
Hind tibia of Catocala illecta. 
Hind tibia of Catocala car a. 
Hind tibia of Catocala unijuga. 
Middle tibia of Catocala delilah. 
Hind tibia of Catocala delilah. 
Middle tibia of Catocala arizonce form babayaga. 
Hind tibia of Catocala arizonce form babayaga. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XXI 









30 








PLATE XXII 



Plate XXII 

Right clasper of Catocala illecta, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala illecta, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala abbreviatella, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala nuptialis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala whitneyi, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala amestris, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala gracilis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala andromedce, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala coccinata, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala verrilliana, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala violenta, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala ophelia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala miranda, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala orba, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala ultronia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala proeclara, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala blandula, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala dulciola, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala cratcegi, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala mira, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala grynea, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala manitoba, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala olivia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala clintoni, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala similis, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala micronympha, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala micronympha, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala Cordelia, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala Cordelia, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala minuta, enlarged. 
Left clasper of Catocala minuta, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala jair, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala arnica, enlarged. 
Right clasper of Catocala messalina, enlarged. 
Fig. 35. Left clasper of Catocala messalina, enlarged. 



Fig. 


1. 


Fig. 


2. 


Fig. 


3. 


Fig. 


4. 


Fig. 


5. 


Fig. 


6. 


Fig. 


7. 


Fig. 


8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13. 


Fig. 


14. 


Fig. 


15. 


Fig. 


16. 


Fig. 


17. 


Fig. 


18. 


Fig. 


19. 


Fig. 


20. 


Fig. 


21. 


Fig. 


22. 


Fig. 


23. 


Fig. 


24. 


Fig. 


25. 


Fig. 


26. 


Fig. 


27. 


Fig. 


28. 


Fig. 


29. 


Fig. 


30. 


Fig. 


31. 


Fig. 


32. 


Fig. 


33. 


Fig. 


34. 



Memoirs Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



N. S., Vol. Ill, Plate XXII 





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